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13 Colonies Notes I. First Permanent Colonies: ____________ Companies A. ___________ Company- Divided into two joint stock companies. 1. __________ Company a. Jamestown Settlement - Area around _______________ - Landed in the spring of __________ - First permanent English colony in America. - Captain _____________- leader of the colony. Instituted a ____ for ____ program. Was unpopular with the gentleman. - The Virginia Company sent businessmen and merchants instead of _______ and _______. Thus the building of houses and the sowing of fields were done by a small amount of people. Also, many settlers searched for _____. b. Early Years - “___________” The winter of 09-10- many died and the colony was only saved when a relief ship arrived. - Friendly Natives the _______ helped the settler’s farm, find food and deal with other situations that arose. - In 1612 a settler by the name of ____________, began experimenting to find a new cash crop, he found ________. This became very popular in England. John Rolfe married the leader of the _______ Indians daughter, her name was ______________. - The London Company had the right to name a governor and a council to run the colony. The land in the colony belonged to the ______ and the settlers worked for the company. c. Later Years - In 1619 the Company started granting land to the settlers and allowed them to elect __________. This first legislature became known as the _____________________. - They had the right to pass local _____ and raise ______. - Relations with the Natives became heated because more and more settlers came to Jamestown and began taking over more the land for ________ plantations. - Because the company ran the colony so poorly the king took over control of the colony and established it as a ______ Colony- one that is ruled by the King’s _____________. From 1623-1629 didn’t allow the House of Burgesses to meet. 2. _______ Company a. Plymouth Colony - Religious groups known as _________ were being persecuted in England; they left to live in _______ for a number of years. - The Separatists received a ____ to start a settlement in ______. They didn’t have enough _______ and ______, so they opened up their group to other non Separatists to join them on their trip. - In _____ the _______ left on the _______, headed for Virginia, but was blown off course and landed farther north in ________ ________, in New England - Wrote and signed the ________________, agreeing to set up a civil ____________ and abide by its laws, because their Charter was void since they didn’t land where they were supposed to. - Two reasons this was important 1. Helped the _______ ________ 2. Was a foundation for ___________, that given the chance to choose, people want government for their protection and rules. b. Early Years - Many colonists _____ of hunger the first winter. They planted farms in the spring and were helped by friendly natives. - One native named _______, who spoke _______, helped the colonists learn native ways for surviving in the wilderness. - They controlled themselves for over ____ years with no influence from England. c. _________________ Bay Colony - Many educated __________ formed the Mass. Bay Company in ______. - They left to start a colony that ______ controlled by England as the Jamestown settlement was; their Charter granted them the right to ______________________. - The founded the city of ___________ in 1630. d. Early years - Many Puritans continued to come to the new world over the next _____ years because the King of England continued to persecute them. The population grew to __________ after those ten years. - This movement of Puritans was known as the ______________ Several other settlements were begun during these 10 years, such as ___________. - ___________________ was the governor of the colony. II. e. The religion - Very _______ and the local _______ controlled the local ____________. - Only members of the church could ____ and hold any office. - Only a few men were allowed to become __________ of the church. - If you didn’t follow the rules of the church you could be __________, as was ___________ and ________________. f. Later years - As the population grew, many left Boston to start other settlements, such as _____________ and New Hampshire. g. Positives of the Mass. Bay Colony were their establishment of Democratic Principles. - Self-Governing through ________ __________ - Puritan men could elect ___________ and _____________ - _________ rights were expanded Later Colonies A. _____________________ 1. Founded by Roger Williams 2. Founded in 1644 3. Founded because: Williams was a ________ minister living in Salem. He had different beliefs than other Puritans so he was _______ from Mass. 4. He started his own settlement of ____________. Williams paid the __________ for the land. B. _______________ 1. Founded by Rev. Thomas Hooker 2. Founded in 1662. 3. Founded because: Rev. Hooker wanted more people to have opportunities to become a part of the church and the ability to vote. 4. They left to establish settlements on the __________________three establishments originally: Wethersfield, Windsor, and __________. 5. Adopted the ______________________ of Connecticut a. First written ____________ in America b. Established _________ for the people to follow 6. Eventually the colony of New Haven will be incorporated by the late 1600’s. C. Maryland 1. Founded by _____________ (Lord Baltimore) 2. Founded in 1634 3. Founded because: Lord Calvert wanted land in America to ___ __________ for his family and for a refuge for _________ that lived in England. ________________________: a colony governed by a single person. 4. Early Years - had a ______________ assembly - Grew __________ and needed workers for the difficult work - Had a large _________________ and ________ population - In 1649 because of the increase in population of Protestants the ____________________ was passed to allow freedom of religion to all who believed in Jesus Christ. - In 1654 ________ tried to take over, after some years, peace came and the Acts of Toleration were restored. D. New Hampshire a. Founded by early Puritans, but was given control to ______ ___________ b. Founded in 1680 c. Founded because: The king wanted to _______ some of the power away from the Mass. Colony so he gave the control of the areas of Hew Hampshire and Maine to ________________. The people of Mass. Bay began buying up land of both of these areas. Eventually the king took control of New Hampshire and made it a _______________. Maine was controlled by Mass. E. ____________________ a. Settled after the 1660’s b. Area was granted to ______________ who supported Charles II c. Early Years - English Aristocrats wanted to make ________ like the two colonies of Virginia and Maryland and offered 3 things to attract settlers: - ________________________ - ________________________ - ________________________ - Many came from _________ and began settling in northern Carolina. - They wanted to make a profit as landowners producing ___, _________, and _______, a blue dye. F. South Carolina a. First settlers - Originally ______ from ______ (Caribbean) settled and started _________________ in 1670 - Eventually many Huguenots: _______________ settled here b. Became its own colony in 1719 when they felt they weren’t being protected from ______ and ___________ c. The growing of rice, indigo and tobacco had three substantial social effects: 1. Increased the _______ of the large Plantation owners, who would become the _______. 2. Increased the number of ________, blacks from _______ and the ________ and Native Americans. 3. Fear of ______________ and fighting against Natives was __________ in the area. G. ____________ a. Founded by Peter Minuit b. Founded in 1626 c. Founded because: The _______ wanted to establish a trading colony in the area explored by the Dutch explorer Henry Hudson. - Minuit bought the island of ____________ from the Natives, and established _________________. - The colony grew very slowly - Eventually took over the colony of _______________ - Established the Patroon system: a __________ who brought ____ ________ and usually received a large land grant as a reward - Became one of the most religiously tolerant colonies d. An English colony: - The King of England wanted the entire _________ coast under the rule of the English. - Sent the Duke of _______ to drive out the Dutch. - The Dutch didn’t resist and therefore they were able to keep some of their ________. Renamed it New York H. New Jersey a. Established by John ________ and George ________ b. Established in 1664, but became a royal colony in 1702. c. How: The area became part of New York when the English came to over take New Netherlands. - It was too large of an area for one person to control. - Duke of York gave the area of __________ to two friends. - They promised the same things the ______ Aristocrats offered. I. Pennsylvania a. Founded by _____________ b. Founded in 1681 c. Founded because: Land was ______ to Penn as a gift for his families assistance to ____________. - They were given permission to settle in an area west of the __________________. - Penn was a _________, and brought many of them to ______ __________ where they could worship freely. - Many other religious groups came to escape persecution as well J. Delaware a. Founded by ____________ b. Founded in 1638, became a colony in early 1700’s c. Founded because: Sweden wanted a hand in the trading of ________ so they established a fort on the Delaware River. The area became under the control of the British when they overtook New Netherland. After the establishment of Pennsylvania, William Penn received a grant for the area. It was under its own ___________________ but they shared the same governor. K. Georgia a. Founded by James ________________ b. Founded in 1732 c. Founded Because: Oglethorpe wanted to allow people that were in prison for not _____________ a refuge. d. Eventually a large _________ population lived here: English, ________, Swiss, _______, and Protestant and _________ religions. Catholics were _______ for security reasons. e. Initially it was supposed to be _____ farms and _____ slave labor, but became a royal colony and allowed ________ and became a __________ society like South Carolina.