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Chapter 6
How Cells Harvest Chemical
Energy
PowerPoint Lectures for
Biology: Concepts and Connections, Fifth Edition
– Campbell, Reece, Taylor, and Simon
Lectures by Chris Romero
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
6.0
How Is a Marathoner Different from a
Sprinter?
• Muscles in human legs contain two different
– Marathoners: have more _______________
cells, perform better in
– Sprinters: have more _________________
cells, perform best in
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
INTRODUCTION TO CELLULAR RESPIRATION
6.1 All living organisms require
- Photosynthesis
-
converts energy from
-
to glucose
- Cellular respiration
-
breaks down
-
& releases
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
6.2 Breathing and cellular respiration are
– breathing brings
– O2 is distributed to cells by
– in cellular respiration, mitochondria use O2
to
– breathing disposes of the CO2 produced
as a
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
6.3 Cellular respiration stores energy in
• the reactants O2 and glucose regroup to form
• energy from glucose is released and
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
CONNECTION
6.4 The human body uses energy from ATP for
• the body needs a continual
• ATP supplies
• an average adult human:
- needs about
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
STAGES OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION AND
FERMENTATION
6.5 Cellular respiration occurs in three main stages
Stage 1:
• occurs in the
• breaks down glucose into
- which produces
• Stage 2: The
• takes place in the
– completes the breakdown of
– by oxidizing the
- producing
- and
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Stage 3: Electron
– occurs in the
– uses the energy released by electrons in
the
– producing
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
6.6 The synthesis of
• attach phosphate groups
• produces
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
CONNECTION
6.7 Certain poisons
- interrupt critical events in
- rotenone, cyanide, & carbon monoxide
- block parts of
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
6.8 Fermentation
- generates 2 ATP molecules from _________
in the absence of
- muscle cells use
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Alcohol fermentation occurs in:
• by converting pyruvate to
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
6.9 Strict anaerobes
– require
- to generate ATP by
– are poisoned by
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Facultative anaerobes
– make ATP by:
- oxidative
(depending on whether
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
INTERCONNECTIONS BETWEEN MOLECULAR
BREAKDOWN AND SYNTHESIS
6.10 Cells use three main kinds of food molecules to
make ATP
• Carbohydrates
- digested down into
• Proteins
- digested down into
• Fats
- digested down into
6.11 The fuel for respiration
- ultimately comes from
- plants make _____________ molecules by
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings