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Non-Communicable Diseases
 Disease that is not transmitted by another person, a
vector, or the environment
 Cardiovascular Disease is one of the most common and
preventable diseases
 Uncontrollable growth of abnormal cells
 More than 100 types
 Occurs because of DNA damage
 A buildup can cause a tumor
 Abnormal mass of tissue that has no natural role in
the body
Types of Tumors
 2 types: benign and malignant
 Benign - grows slowly and is noncancerous but could
interfere with normal body functions
 Malignant - spreads to other tissues and is cancerous
Metastasis - spread of a cancer from one organ or part to
another non-adjacent organ or part
Types of Cancer
 Lymphomas – affect immune system
 Leukemias – affect blood-forming organs
 Carcinomas – affect glands and body linings
including skin
 Sarcomas – affect connective tissues
Common Cancers
Women –
1. Breast
2. Lung
3. Colorectal
4. Cancer of the Uterus
Men –
1. Prostate
2. Lung
3. Colorectal
• Order for both men and
women can change based
upon race/ethnicity
General Signs and Symptoms
 Unexplained weight loss
 10 or more pounds in a relatively short amount of time
 Fever
 Usually occurs after the cancer has spread to other parts
 Fatigue
 Does not get better with rest
 Pain
 Can be an early symptom with certain cancers or a later symptom with
cancers that have spread
 Skin changes
 Discoloration, rashes
Some cancers have more specific signs and symptoms
Risk Factors for Cancer
 Exposure to carcinogens (cancer-causing substance)
 Tobacco and UV light are most common
 Tobacco and tobacco smoke contain at least 43
different carcinogens
 215,000 new cases of lung cancer related to smoking are
diagnosed each year
 Radiation (UV light)
 Skin that is tanned is your skin’s reaction to damage
from the UV light
Risk Factors for Cancer
 STD’s
 Human Papillomavirus (HPV) can cause cervical cancer
 Hepatitis B can cause liver cancer
 Dietary Factors
 High fat, low fiber diets often linked with colon, breast,
and prostate cancers
 Heredity
 Family history can determine if you are at a higher risk
Treatments for Cancer
 Surgery to remove cancerous masses
 Radiation therapy uses radioactive substances to kill
cancer cells and shrink cancerous masses
 Chemotherapy uses chemicals to destroy cancer cells
 Immunotherapy activates a person’s immune system to
recognize specific cancers and destroy them
 Hormone therapy uses medicines to interfere with the
production of certain hormones that facilitate cancer
 Type 1 and Type 2
 A chronic disease that affects the way body cells convert
sugar into energy
 Insulin producing cells in the Pancreas are either
inefficient or destroyed
 Insulin helps glucose enter body cells
 Type 1 accounts for 5 – 10% of all diabetes cases
 Body fails to produce insulin and glucose builds up in the
 Cells begin attacking and destroying cells in the pancreas that
produce insulin
 Daily doses of insulin are required through injections or a
specially attached pump
 Type 2 accounts for 90-95% of all cases
 Usually appears in adults over age 40
 Disease is developing in younger adults, teens, and
 Body is unable to use insulin properly or is not making
 Low-fat, low-calorie foods rich in protein and limited
in carbohydrates and regular physical activity help
manage diabetes
Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes
 High blood pressure
 High blood triglyceride (fat) levels
 Gestational diabetes or giving birth to a baby weighing
more than 9 pounds
 High-fat and carbohydrate diet
 High alcohol intake
Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes
 Sedentary lifestyle
 Obesity or being overweight
 Ethnicity: Certain groups, such as African Americans,
Native Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Japanese
Americans, have a greater risk of developing type 2
diabetes than non-Hispanic whites.
 Aging: Increasing age is a significant risk factor for
type 2 diabetes. The risk of developing type 2 diabetes
begins to rise significantly at about age 45, and rises
considerably after age 65.
Complications from Diabetes
 Blood-glucose levels that are elevated (hyperglycemia)
over a long period of time can lead to:
 Heart Attack
 Stroke
 Blindness
 Kidney Failure
 Nerve Damage
Hypoglycemia Too low of a blood-glucose level
Symptoms occur very quickly
Nervousness or anxiety
Sweating, chills and
Lightheadedness or dizziness
Rapid/fast heartbeat
Hunger and nausea
Blurred/impaired vision
Tingling or numbness in the
lips or tongue
Weakness or fatigue
Lack of coordination
Irritability or impatience
Confusion, including
Anger, stubbornness, or
Nightmares or crying out
during sleep
Treatments for Diabetes
 Low-fat, low-calorie foods rich in protein and limited
in carbohydrates and regular physical activity help
manage diabetes
 Insulin injections help manage blood glucose levels
 There is no cure but weight loss has shown to greatly
manage symptoms