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Non-Communicable Diseases
 Disease that is not transmitted by another person, a
vector, or the environment
 Cardiovascular Disease is one of the most common and
preventable diseases
Cancer
 Uncontrollable growth of abnormal cells
 More than 100 types
 Occurs because of DNA damage
 A buildup can cause a tumor
 Abnormal mass of tissue that has no natural role in
the body
Types of Tumors
 2 types: benign and malignant
 Benign - grows slowly and is noncancerous but could
interfere with normal body functions
 Malignant - spreads to other tissues and is cancerous
Metastasis - spread of a cancer from one organ or part to
another non-adjacent organ or part
Types of Cancer
 Lymphomas – affect immune system
 Leukemias – affect blood-forming organs
 Carcinomas – affect glands and body linings
including skin
 Sarcomas – affect connective tissues
Common Cancers
Women –
1. Breast
2. Lung
3. Colorectal
4. Cancer of the Uterus
Men –
1. Prostate
2. Lung
3. Colorectal
• Order for both men and
women can change based
upon race/ethnicity
General Signs and Symptoms
 Unexplained weight loss
 10 or more pounds in a relatively short amount of time
 Fever
 Usually occurs after the cancer has spread to other parts
 Fatigue
 Does not get better with rest
 Pain
 Can be an early symptom with certain cancers or a later symptom with
cancers that have spread
 Skin changes
 Discoloration, rashes
Some cancers have more specific signs and symptoms
www.cancer.org
Risk Factors for Cancer
 Exposure to carcinogens (cancer-causing substance)
 Tobacco and UV light are most common
 Tobacco and tobacco smoke contain at least 43
different carcinogens
 215,000 new cases of lung cancer related to smoking are
diagnosed each year
 Radiation (UV light)
 Skin that is tanned is your skin’s reaction to damage
from the UV light
Risk Factors for Cancer
 STD’s
 Human Papillomavirus (HPV) can cause cervical cancer
 Hepatitis B can cause liver cancer
 Dietary Factors
 High fat, low fiber diets often linked with colon, breast,
and prostate cancers
 Heredity
 Family history can determine if you are at a higher risk
Treatments for Cancer
 Surgery to remove cancerous masses
 Radiation therapy uses radioactive substances to kill
cancer cells and shrink cancerous masses
 Chemotherapy uses chemicals to destroy cancer cells
 Immunotherapy activates a person’s immune system to
recognize specific cancers and destroy them
 Hormone therapy uses medicines to interfere with the
production of certain hormones that facilitate cancer
growth.
Diabetes
 Type 1 and Type 2
 A chronic disease that affects the way body cells convert
sugar into energy
 Insulin producing cells in the Pancreas are either
inefficient or destroyed
 Insulin helps glucose enter body cells
 Type 1 accounts for 5 – 10% of all diabetes cases
 Body fails to produce insulin and glucose builds up in the
blood
 Cells begin attacking and destroying cells in the pancreas that
produce insulin
 Daily doses of insulin are required through injections or a
specially attached pump
Diabetes
 Type 2 accounts for 90-95% of all cases
 Usually appears in adults over age 40
 Disease is developing in younger adults, teens, and
children
 Body is unable to use insulin properly or is not making
enough
 Low-fat, low-calorie foods rich in protein and limited
in carbohydrates and regular physical activity help
manage diabetes
Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes
 High blood pressure
 High blood triglyceride (fat) levels
 Gestational diabetes or giving birth to a baby weighing
more than 9 pounds
 High-fat and carbohydrate diet
 High alcohol intake
Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes
 Sedentary lifestyle
 Obesity or being overweight
 Ethnicity: Certain groups, such as African Americans,
Native Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Japanese
Americans, have a greater risk of developing type 2
diabetes than non-Hispanic whites.
 Aging: Increasing age is a significant risk factor for
type 2 diabetes. The risk of developing type 2 diabetes
begins to rise significantly at about age 45, and rises
considerably after age 65.
Complications from Diabetes
 Blood-glucose levels that are elevated (hyperglycemia)
over a long period of time can lead to:
 Heart Attack
 Stroke
 Blindness
 Kidney Failure
 Nerve Damage
Hypoglycemia Too low of a blood-glucose level
Symptoms occur very quickly
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Shakiness
Nervousness or anxiety
Sweating, chills and
clamminess
Lightheadedness or dizziness
Rapid/fast heartbeat
Hunger and nausea
Blurred/impaired vision
Tingling or numbness in the
lips or tongue
Weakness or fatigue
Lack of coordination
Unconsciousness
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Irritability or impatience
Confusion, including
delirium
Headaches
Anger, stubbornness, or
sadness
Nightmares or crying out
during sleep
Seizures
Coma
Treatments for Diabetes
 Low-fat, low-calorie foods rich in protein and limited
in carbohydrates and regular physical activity help
manage diabetes
 Insulin injections help manage blood glucose levels
 There is no cure but weight loss has shown to greatly
manage symptoms