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Introduction to Animal Science Chapter 1 Why Are Animals Important? • • • • • • • • Live with them Worship Consume Admire Fear Love Care Depend • Part of Our – Sustenance – Sociology – Day-to-Day Loves Animal Science • Branch of study deals with domestic animals. • Everyone in the world depends on animals in one way or another • Animals Domestication was the 1st major step toward civilization Domestication • Domestic- plants or animals controlled by humans – 1st domesticated animal was the dog according to DNA sequencing technology • 14,000 years ago • Hunters and Gatherers • After this convenience was the reason for domestication Categories • Genetics- application for animals selection and improving the next generation. • Nutrition- deals with feeding of animals. Combines feed and feed management. • Physiology- study of body systems and how they work. • Animal Health- how diseases, parasites and environmental factors affecting productivity and welfare. Categories cont. • Ethology- study of animals behavior. • Meat Science- deals with handling, distribution, and marketing of finished meat products. • Dairy Product Science- collection, handling, and marketing of milk. • Biotechnology- technology application of the study of life. • There is an overlap in areas. Animal Distribution • Reasons for Low Productivity – Unfavorable climatic environments – Prevalence of diseases and parasites – Genetically inferior livestock – Poor management – Sociological factors • Reasons for Keeping Animals – Food/Body coverings – Cultural needs Contribution • World’s People consumption – Plants 83.6% • Most Affordable throughout the world – Animals 16.4% • In developed countries the numbers increase • U.S. 24% • Most important source of protein, supplying 37.2% of protein throughout the world. – U.S. 63% Animal Distribution • Nutrient Density- measurement of the nutrients provided in food compared to the calories it contains. “Nutrients vs. Calories” • Diet- the total of the foods and water being consumed by an individual of groups. – Country’s living standards can be identified by the amount of animal in their diet • Most nutritionally complete foods essential amino acids – Amino acids required by the body Animal Distribution • 40% of U.S Food supply comes from livestock and aquatic animals • 3rd world countries eat 64% of the U.S daily calories • 14% of the World is undernourished. Other Uses • Clothing- wool, feathers, fibers, hides • Manure- value, $10 billion in U.S. • Slaughter- insecticides, crayons, cosmetics, plastic, cellophane, glass, water filter, plywood adhesive, soap, feed. Diversified Agriculture • Animals convert inedible feeds to valuable products • 2/3rds of feed are not edible to humans • More stable and more profitable.