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Transcript
```Problem Solving & its Techniques
March 06, 2013
Problem Solving: Definition and
meaning
“… as any goal directed sequence of cognitive
operations”
• Starts with a problem: Initial state
• Work towards reaching a solution: Goal state
Example: Pizza
You have just brought a pizza home from a pizza place
and it is beginning to cool.
Initial state: ?
Ideal state:?
What is the problem?
Suppose, if friend comes over an hour later and you
offer him a piece of leftover pizza, only to discover that
Initial state?
Ideal state?
What is the problem?
Example: Project Presentation
• Topic: Quality management across industries
• Requirement: Selecting 2 or more companies
representing industries
• Presentation: Findings
Problem:
• How to find the information?
• How to analyse the information in the context of
the topic?
• How should be the flow of the presentation?
Kepner-Tregoe (K.T.) method
• Structured methodology
• Gathering information
• Prioritising and evaluating information
The method is a root-cause analysis and
decision making method
Kepner-Tregoe (K.T.) method (contd…)
• Recognising concerns
– Make a list of situations that are not ideal or could affect
someone’s well-being or possible opportunities
– What is the problem and what it can do if it persists?
• Separating concerns into manageable components
– Restructure listed situations in a way that can be manageable
– Will this resolve the problem?
• Setting priorities
– Tackle the concerns on the basis of their seriousness, urgency
and likely growth
– What if resolving the problem is postponed?
• Planning resolution of the concerns
– Decision-making and treating the problem
Ergonomics
An employee working with a multinational firm,
could not figure out the reason for the extreme
pain which she experienced in her hands after
putting in eight hours of work at the office.
When she went to the doctor after trying out
various painkillers and lotions, he told her that
she was affected by a musculoskeletal disorder
caused by repeated use of the computer
keyboard. – Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
Keyboards
Ergonomics: Definition
• The word "Ergonomics" comes from two
Greek words "ergon", meaning work, and
"nomos" meaning "laws".
• "designing the job to fit the worker, not
forcing the worker to fit the job."
Other Examples
• Indoor air quality or excessive noise. "Sick
building syndrome", with its accompanying
headaches, congestion, fatigue and even rashes,
can result from poor air quality in a building or
office.
• Excessive noise around heavy machinery or
equipment can cause permanent hearing loss.
• Improper lighting can cause eyestrain and
headaches, especially in conjunction with a
computer monitor.
Is it Practical…?
• Always?
• Kitchen appliances?
• Garbage bags?
Six-Sigma: Case Study (Video)
• Mumbai Dabbawalas