Dealing with Inconsistency and Incompleteness in Data Integration
... processing, but they are not replicated in the integration system.
The materialized approach to data integration is the most closely related to Data Warehousing
[99, 55, 148, 34, 100]. In this context, data integration activities are relevant for the initial
loading and for the refreshing of the War ...
... Weighted graphs and automata offer a unifying framework for treating problems or modeling systems with
the same structural properties. Consider the following problems, which all share a common structure:
1. computing the language of/a regular expression for a given NFA,
2. finding shortest paths bet ...
All Soviet Union Math Competitions
... edge to c. c is not already on the path, because otherwise the edge would join b to itself. Now
suppose we have reached a point x not previously on the path. x has at least two edges, so it
must have another one besides the one we used to reach it. Suppose this joins x to y. If y is
already on the p ...
An inverse problem in science is the process of calculating from a set of observations the causal factors that produced them: for example, calculating an image in computer tomography, source reconstructing in acoustics, or calculating the density of the Earth from measurements of its gravity field.It is called an inverse problem because it starts with the results and then calculates the causes. This is the inverse of a forward problem, which starts with the causes and then calculates the results.Inverse problems are some of the most important mathematical problems in science and mathematics because they tell us about parameters that we cannot directly observe. They have wide application in optics, radar, acoustics, communication theory, signal processing, medical imaging, computer vision, geophysics, oceanography, astronomy, remote sensing, natural language processing, machine learning, nondestructive testing, and many other fields.