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Transcript
NESUG 17
Posters
Transporting Data in the SAS® Universe
John Malloch and Jayne May Miller
Center for Health Program Development and Management
University of Maryland, Baltimore County
Abstract
In the best of all possible worlds, we would only have to use SAS® data. However, since that is not usually the case, this
poster presentation will cover some of the basics of moving external data to and from SAS using code examples. We will
cover Microsoft® Access and Excel, relational databases, and flat files. The examples will use SAS Procedures like
IMPORT, EXPORT, DBLOAD, and SQL, as well as the SAS data step. We will also cover some features of the
SAS/ACCESS® LIBNAME statement and the Pass-Through Facility. We will mention the SAS software utilized by each
technique such as SAS Base, SAS/ACCESS for PC, and SAS/ACCESS for Relational Databases.
Introduction
SAS is the most accommodating software in the world for moving data between SAS databases and other file systems. There
are many different options and techniques that can be used for transporting data to and from SAS. This paper is meant to
serve as a simple introduction to some of the methods available for transporting data using SAS.
We will use eight code examples as a quick reference. All of the examples use SAS/PC Version 8 in the Microsoft (MS)
Windows environment. All of the examples will work in SAS Version 9, and 1-5 will also work in SAS Version 6. For
different platforms and different data sources please refer to the SAS documentation for the SAS products mentioned with
each example.
For illustrative purposes we will number the examples as flights to and from the SAS 'Data Terminal'. You may use our
'Flight Schedule' below as a guide to send your data to a specific destination or you may wish to look over the entire schedule
for future reference.
Arrivals and Departures
Flight
From
To
Carrier
Via
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
SAS
MS Excel
SAS
Flat File
SAS
MS SQL
SAS
MS SQL
MS Access
SAS
Flat File
SAS
MS SQL
SAS
MS SQL
SAS
PROC EXPORT
PROC IMPORT
PROC EXPORT
DATA Step
PROC DBLOAD
DATA Step
PROC SQL
PROC SQL
SAS/ACCESS
SAS/ACCESS
SAS Base
SAS Base
SAS/ACCESS
SAS/ACCESS LIBNAME
SAS/ACCESS Pass-Through
SAS/ACCESS Pass-Through
Flight 1
This code uses PROC EXPORT to create a MS ACCESS table from a SAS file. 'DATA=' points to the SAS file, '
OUTTABLE=' is the name you wish to give the MS ACCESS table, and 'DATABASE=' is the location of the MS ACCESS
database. The SAS/ACCESS Interface to PC File Formats is used here. SAS/PC has an online interface that will import and
export for you interactively.
PROC EXPORT DATA= sasfile
OUTTABLE= "access_table"
DBMS=ACCESS2000 REPLACE;
DATABASE="C:\MS ACCESS\Database.mdb";
RUN;
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NESUG 17
Posters
Flight 2
This example illustrates using PROC IMPORT to create a SAS file from a MS EXCEL file. 'GETNAMES=YES' is used to
create SAS variable names from the EXCEL column names in the first row of an EXCEL table. The SAS/ACCESS Interface
to PC File Formats is used here.
PROC IMPORT OUT= sasfile
DATAFILE= "C:\excelfile.XLS"
DBMS=EXCEL2000 REPLACE;
GETNAMES=YES;
RUN;
Flight 3
This example uses PROC EXPORT to create a comma delimited flat file from a SAS file. 'DELIMITER=' allows you to
specify the delimiter. SAS Base accomplishes this without any other products.
PROC EXPORT DATA= sasfile
OUTFILE= "C:\delimited_file.txt"
DBMS=DLM;
DELIMITER= ',';
RUN;
Flight 4
The SAS DATA step can be used to create or read delimited files also. This example uses the DATA step to create a SAS file
from a flat file with multiple delimiters.
DATA sasfile;
INFILE "C:\flatfile.txt" LRECL=400 DELIMITER="^~";
INPUT
INTERNAL_ID: 10.
NAME: $40.
DOB: mmddyy10.
;
RUN;
Flight 5
Here PROC DBLOAD is used to create a MS SQL Server table from a SAS file. SAS is moving away from DBLOAD, but
while it is still around it can be useful especially if you don't know SQL very well. One limitation of DBLOAD is that it will
not accept SAS variable names longer than eight characters. You may increase the length of the variable name using the
'RENAME' parameter. The 'TYPE' parameter allows you change the data type of an input variable. SAS/ACCESS for
Relational Databases is used here.
PROC DBLOAD DBMS=SQLSERVR DATA=sasfile;
DATABASE= sql_database;
TABLE="sql_table";
TYPE id='CHAR(11)' days='NUMERIC(3)';
RENAME days=days_in_a_year;
COMMIT=0;
ERRLIMIT=1;
LIMIT=0;
LOAD;
RUN;
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Posters
Flight 6
The SAS/ACCESS Libname feature, introduced in SAS Version 7, is used here to create a SAS file from a SQL Server file
using the SAS DATA step. This example shows three variables being kept from the SQL table. Two of the variables are used
to create a new variable in the SAS file and then are dropped. The SAS file has a new budget total by month. This example
and the next use the SAS/ACCESS Interface for ODBC, which is the documented way to get to SQL Server until SAS 9.
SAS Version 9 has new SAS/ACCESS interfaces specifically for SQL Server and MySQL.
Note: SAS procedures may also use this Libname interface.
LIBNAME sqldb ODBC NOPROMPT="DSN=sql_database";
DATA sasfile;
SET sqldb.sql_table(keep=budget1 budget2 month);
budget_total = budget1 + budget2;
DROP budget1 budget2;
RUN;
Flight 7
This example is a little tricky. It creates a SQL Server table from a SAS file using the SAS/ACCESS Libname feature, and
the SAS/ACCESS Pass-Through Facility. We have done this for two reasons. First, to show you that it can be done, and
second, to show you a limitation of PROC SQL with SAS/ACCESS Libname. PROC SQL using SAS/ACCESS Libname
will allow you to create a SQL table but will not allow you to alter it. The SAS/ACCESS Pass-Through Facility 'EXECUTE'
command will allow you to alter a table and do other things that you cannot do directly with PROC SQL.
LIBNAME sqldb ODBC NOPROMPT="DSN=sql_database";
PROC SQL;
CONNECT TO ODBC (DATABASE= sql_database);
CREATE TABLE sqldb.sql_table as
SELECT * FROM sasfile;
EXECUTE (ALTER TABLE sql_table ALTER COLUMN idno CHAR(11)) BY ODBC;
DISCONNECT FROM ODBC;
Flight 8
The SAS/ACCESS Pass-Through Facility is used here with PROC SQL to create a SAS file from a SQL Server table. The
'CREATE TABLE' command creates a SAS file. The 'LIBNAME' statement points to the SAS database.
LIBNAME sasdb 'C:\sasdb';
PROC SQL;
CONNECT TO ODBC (DATABASE= sql_database);
CREATE TABLE sasdb.sasfile AS
SELECT * FROM CONNECTION TO ODBC
(SELECT * FROM sqltbl);
DISCONNECT FROM ODBC;
Conclusion
All of this can be a lot to take in. Here are some general guidelines for transporting data to and from SAS:
• The SAS DATA step may be used to process flat files with SAS Base.
• The SAS DATA step and SAS procedures may be used with SAS/ACCESS to process relational databases.
• PROC IMPORT and PROC EXPORT may be used to process flat files with SAS Base.
• PROC IMPORT and PROC EXPORT may be used to process Microsoft EXCEL and ACCESS files with
SAS/ACCESS for PC Files.
• PROC DBLOAD may be used to create relational database files with SAS/ACCESS for Relational Databases.
• PROC SQL may be used to process relational databases with SAS/ACCESS for Relational Databases.
Also of note:
There are SAS/ACCESS products and interfaces for many databases as well as interfaces for ODBC and OLE DB.
SAS Version 9 SAS/ACCESS Software for Relational Databases has new interfaces for MS SQL Server and MySQL.
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NESUG 17
Posters
References
SAS OnlineDoc®, Version 8, SAS Institute Inc. (Cary, NC):
Base SAS Software
SAS/ACCESS
Trademarks
SAS and all other SAS Institute, Inc., product or service names are registered trademarks or trademarks of SAS Institute., in
the USA and other countries. ® indicates USA registration.
Microsoft and all other Microsoft, Inc., product or service names are registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft, Inc.,
in the USA and other countries.
Contact Information
John Malloch
CHPDM/UMBC
1000 Hilltop Circle
Social Sciences 309
Baltimore, MD 21250
(410) 455-6297
[email protected]
Jayne May Miller
CHPDM/UMBC
1000 Hilltop Circle
Social Sciences 309
Baltimore, MD 21250
(410) 455-6849
[email protected]
4