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Year 9 History Australians at War World War One World War One (WW1, WWI, World war I) also known as the First World War or The Great War, world war I was the first global conflict centred in Europe that began on 28th July 1914 and lasted until 11th November 1918. British war poet Siegfried Sassoon described it as ‘hell’s last horror’. More than 9 million combatants and 7 million civilians died and as many as 20 million were injured as a result of the war. A casualty rate that was exacerbated by the technological and industrial sophistication of the weapons and a tactical stalemate. It is one of the great human tragedies of the modern era. The war was fought by all of the world’s economic great powers which were assembled in two opposing alliances. The Allies (based on the Triple Entente of Great Britain, France and the Russian Empire) and the Central Powers of Germany and Austria Hungary. These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war. Italy, Japan and USA joined the Allies. The Ottoman Empire and the Bulgarta joined the Central Powers. Ultimately 70 million military personnel were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history. WWI produced death and destruction unlike any previous military conflict. It began as a European War but spread to the Middle East, the Far East, Africa, the Pacific Ocean and the waters around South America. It involved troops not only from European powers but also from parts of their empires: African colonies, Canada and Newfoundland, Australia, New Zealand, India and the Caribbean. The immediate trigger for the war was the 28th June 1914 assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary by Yugoslav nationalist Gavtrilo Princp in Sarajevo. The assassination was a trigger for the European powers to honour their alliances and look after their own interests. Germany invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, leading Britain to declare war on Germany. The empires fought to gain a bigger empire or to preserve the empire that they had. After the German advance on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Front settled into a war of attrition, with a trench line that would change little until 1917. As the war continued it became difficult to stop, as the idea of losing became unthinkable after so many resources had been invested and there was so much suffering. By the end of the war, four major imperial powers – the German, Russian, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires- ceased to exist. The maps of Europe and Southwest Asia were redrawn, with several independent states restored or created. During the Paris Peace conference at the end of the War the Big Four ( Great Britain, France, Italy and the USA) imposed their terms on Germany in a number of treaties. The League of Nations (a forerunner of the United Nations) was formed to prevent a repetition of such an appalling conflict. This aim however failed with weakened states, renewed European nationalism and German humiliation contributing to the rise of Fascism which led eventually to World War Two. Year 9 Hist – Australians at War 1 Reading Activity 1. Write down the heading. ______________________________________________________________ 2. Number the paragraphs. 3. Circle the metalanguage words : alliances, attrition, casualty , Central Powers, combatants, empires, Fascism, imperial, nationalism, neutral, stalemate, treaties , trench, Triple Entente. 4. Write down the words you don’t know the meaning of or find difficult to spell. _____________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Highlight 5 nouns. Highlight 5 verbs. Highlight 5 adjectives. Highlight 3 adverbs. 6. Write down 3 things you have learnt from reading this passage. a. ___________________________________________________________________________________ b. ___________________________________________________________________________________ c. ___________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Give another name for World War One. ___________________________________________________ 8. When did it start and finish? ____________________________________________________________ 9. How many years did it last? ____________________________________________________________ 10. Who were the Allies? __________________________________________________________________________________ 11. Who were the Central Powers? ___________________________________________________________________________________ 8.Why can it be described as the great tragedy of the 20th century? ______________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ _ Year9 Hist – Australians at War 2 Reading Activity Put in the Capital letters! Remember place names of countries and beginnings of sentences. where: parts of europe, asia, and africa, and in the atlantic, pacific and mediterranean oceans. when: 1914–1918 (peace treaty signed in 1919) why: world war i was a conflict between competing great power alliances. britain, france and russia were in an alliance, as were germany and austria-hungary. the alliance system bound countries to act together if the security of any one was threatened. when the heir to the throne of austria-hungary was assassinated by serbian separatists, this system of alliances was brought into action as governments started threatening each other and supporting their allies. germany, facing a war on two fronts, invaded belgium to try and defeat the french quickly so that they could concentrate on the more difficult task of fighting russia. this invasion of belgium brought in britain, which was determined to stop german naval and commercial expansionism. outline of the conflict: world war i was fought on three major ‘fronts’: the western front (northern france and belgium), the eastern front (between russia and germany), and the supply lines of the atlantic ocean. there was also conflict in german colonies in the pacific and in africa, between italy and austria, in the middle east and in the eastern area of turkey. australian involvement : “most of the men accepted into the australian imperial force (aif) in august 1914 were sent first to egypt, not to europe as they had expected. they were to attack germany’s ally, turkey. after four and a half months of training near cairo, the australians departed by ship for the gallipoli peninsula, together with troops from nations including new zealand, britain and france. the australians landed on 25 april 1915 at what became known as anzac cove, and they established a tenuous foothold on the steep slopes above the beach. during the early days of the campaign, the allies tried to break through the turkish lines and the turks tried to drive the allied troops off the peninsula. all attempts by both sides were unsuccessful, and the ensuing stalemate continued for the remainder of 1915. on 19-20 december the troops were withdrawn. after gallipoli, most of the soldiers and nurses in the aif were sent to the western front. when they arrived in france, the war on the western front had long settled into a stalemate, with the opposing armies facing each other from trench systems that extended across belgium and north-east france from the english channel to the swiss border. the development of machine-guns and artillery favoured defence over attack. throughout 1916 and 1917 the australians and other allied forces repeatedly attempted attacks preceded by massive artillery bombardments intended to cut barbed wire and destroy enemy defences. after these bombardments, waves of attacking infantry emerged from the trenches into no man’s land and advanced towards the enemy’s positions. the surviving germans, protected by deep and heavily reinforced bunkers, were usually able to repel the attackers with machine-gun fire and artillery support from the rear. these attacks often resulted in only limited territorial gains which were followed in turn by german counter-attacks. although this style of warfare favoured the defenders, both sides sustained heavy losses. major engagements involving the australian forces included fromelles on the somme (july 1916, where they suffered 5533 casualties in 24 hours), bullecourt, messines and the four-month long campaign around ypres (or ieper), known as the battle of passchendaele in 1917, and hamel, amiens, mont st quentin, peronne and the hindenburg line in 1918. unlike their counterparts in france and belgium, the australians who remained in the middle east fought a mobile war against the ottoman empire (turkey) in conditions completely different from the mud and stagnation of the western front. the light horsemen and their mounts had to survive extreme heat, harsh terrain and water shortages. nevertheless, casualties were comparatively light, with 1394 australians killed or wounded in three years of war. this campaign began in 1916 with australian troops participating in the defence of the suez canal and the allied reconquest of the sinai peninsula. in the following year australian and other allied troops advanced into palestine and captured gaza and jerusalem; by 1918 they had occupied lebanon and syria. on 30 october 1918, turkey surrendered. australians also served at sea. the royal australian navy (ran), under the command of the british navy, made a significant contribution early in the war when hmas sydney destroyed the german raider emden near cocos island in november 1914. world war i was the first armed conflict in which aircraft were used; about 3000 australian airmen served in the middle east and france with the australian flying corps (afc), mainly in observation capacities or providing infantry support. australian women volunteered for service in auxiliary roles as cooks, nurses, drivers, interpreters, munitions workers and farm workers. while the government welcomed the service of nurses, it generally rejected offers from women in other professions to serve overseas. australian nurses served in egypt, france, greece and india, often in trying conditions or close to the front, where they were exposed to shelling and aerial bombardment. statistics for australia, as for many nations, world war i remains the most costly conflict ever in terms of deaths and casualties. from a population of fewer than five million, 300 000 men enlisted, of whom over 60 000 were killed and 156 000 were wounded, gassed or taken prisoner. 1. You are a Turkish soldier at Gallipoli. Write a paragraphs outlining what you hate about Gallipoli. _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ The Turkish perspectiue For the ordinary Turkish soldier it was very clear why they were fighting - enemies were attempting to defeat them and to take their land. Like all attacking armies in World War I, the Turks suffered terribly from the power of Allied machine guns, artillery and rifle fire. In addition, the Turkish soldiers faced the same environmental hardships as the Anzacs, including the lack of water, the swarms of flies, the cold and the heat. The Anzacs developed a grudging respect for the Turkish soldiers. During the major Turkish offensive of May 1915, in which approximately 3000 Turkish soldiers died and 7000 were wounded, they incurred roughly 10000 casualties, the Turks had shown great courage and determination in persisting with their attacks. It is estimated that 100000 Turks were killed and another 250 000 wounded in the Dardanelles campaign. These figures dwarf the losses incurred by the Allied countries. Year 9 Hist – Australians at War 3 Reading Activity Living conditions at Gallipoli Once the trench lines had been established and the stalemate developed, soldiers on both sides had to find the best way of living on the ridges and gullies of Gallipoli. They faced a number of severe hardships. Water The most pressing problem was to provide fresh drinking water to the troops. A little water could be found on site in a few natural springs and by capturing rainwater. However, most of the water had to be brought in by ship from nearby Imbros Island. It was piped to the large water tanks on the beaches from where soldiers from each unit had to haul it up to the front line trenches by hand. Food The food at Gallipoli was monotonous and unappetising. The soldiers existed on a diet of bully beef, hard biscuits, jam and tea. Other items were occasionally supplied, such as onions, tinned milk and cheese, but the latter was particularly unpopular with the soldiers in the hot summer months. Hygiene and sanitation The shortage of water meant that there was little hygiene. Soldiers had the equivalent of an eggcup of water a day for washing and it was impossible to wash one's hands after visiting the latrines. The only time that soldiers could bathe properly was in the sea, which was very risky because of Turkish shelling and sniper fire. Also, it was difficult to find suitable locations to build latrines for the huge number of men among the slopes of Gallipoli. It took some time before the army began to organise proper latrines. This meant that, initially, soldiers had to find their own solutions to the problem. Flies A persistent theme in accounts of Gallipoli is the swarms of flies that descended on the soldiers in the trenches. By all accounts they were everywhere, which isn't surprising when one considers the poor hygiene, the dead bodies lying on the battlefields, the open latrines and the huge amount of garbage (including food) left lying around. It is clear that they made life very unpleasant for soldiers and helped to spread disease. Disease One result of the lack of hygiene and effective sanitation was the spread of disease. Diarrhoea became commonplace among the soldiers - CEW Bean recorded more than 1200 soldiers being evacuated from Anzac Cove in one week from July 21 because of dysentery. This was roughly 5 per cent of the entire force and yet only the most severe cases would have been evacuated. Historian Patsy Adam-Smith estimates that 70 per cent of all Anzacs were sick by this stage. Mostly, they suffered from the embarrassing symptoms of diarrhoea while in the trenches and in their dugouts. It may be one reason why the attacks in early August failed - the soldiers were severely weakened by disease and unable to muster the necessary energy and strength to succeed. 1. List the weapons of World War One in the order you think caused the most loss of life. ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Why do you think World War one caused the greatest loss of life of all modern wars? ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Yeare 9 Hist – Australians at War 4 Reading Activity Weapons The process of industrialisation transformed the nature of battles between the time of the Battle of Waterloo in 1815 to World War I, 100 years later Instead of standing in clear sight of one another as at Waterloo, the new weapons available meant that both sides had to dig trenches in the ground and any army that wished to attack faced significant problems. Machine guns Machine guns came to dominate the battlefields of World War I. With high rates of fire the guns could mow soldiers down as they advanced between the frontlines. For example, the German Maschinengewehr 08, introduced in 1908, could fire 400 rounds a minute at a range of up to 2 kilometres. Lighter machine guns were produced during the war, including the British Lewis Gun and the German Bergmann MPl8. Early versions needed water to keep them cool and they often jammed. Artillery Artillery pieces could fire hugely destructive shrapnel, high explosives or gas shells. For example, the French 75 mm field gun, introduced in 1898, could fire 7 kg shells over 7 kilometres at a sustained rate of l5 rounds per minute. They were excellent defensive weapons since artillery units could blanket an area of trench being attacked with their shells. Artillery bombardments caused 60 per cent of all Western Front casualties. Initially bombardiers wounded/killed some of their own soldiers; by 1918, artillery f ire was more accurate. Tanks The British developed mobile gun platforms that could advance across the muddy battlefields without being stopped by rifle or machine-gun fire. For reasons of secrecy they were called 'tanks' and the name stuck. Tanks were first used in 1916, but only became a key element in winning battles during 1918' Chemical Weapons Both sides used gas during the war - chemicals used included chlorine gas, mustard gas and phosgene. The gases caused burns to soldiers' exposed skin and, when inhaled, to their bronchial tubes and lungs. Some gases were heavier than air, so would settle in craters and trenches, causing injuries for days after an attack. Men feared blindness and the slow and painful death gas could cause. Although they failed to have a significant impact on battle outcomes, gas attacks lowered troop morale. They also initially had the problem that if the wind changed the gas might blow back to injure those who had fired. The development of gas shells to be used with artillery helped to overcome this problem. Gas attacks became less effective with the development of improved protective devices. Bayonets. A metal knife attached to the muzzle of a rifle. ln close combat, the bayonet was safer to use than a bullet that might move through the enemy's body to hit one of the shooter's fellow soldiers. Soldiers feared bayonet wounds so the bayonet did have psychological impact. Grenades AII armies had grenadiers formed into bombing groups that let off grenades along enemy trenches in advance of occupying them. For obvious reasons, grenadiers preferred grenades with timed fuses to percussion grenades that detonated when they hit something and so could explode prematurely. initially unsafe and unreliable, by 1917 the British 'Mills bomb, grenade had become a popular and effective means of destroying enemy pillboxes. Flame throwers The Germans used flame throwers from 1914 against soldiers in front-line trenches. The British and French later used similar weapons. Soldiers feared becoming victims of the flame thrower's burning fuel. It was effective as a shortrange weapon, but the possibility of its cylinder exploding accidentally meant that it could also endanger its user. Aeroplanes In 1914, aeroplanes were a very new technology. By the end of the war, they were integral parts of major battle plans. Initially, they were used for observation and reconnaissance, but later they were also used for bombing enemy positions, attacking trenches and dropping supplies. The men who flew these fragile planes became national heroes and their successes in shooting down their opponents were widely celebrated. Examples of such 'aces' include the German fighter pilot Manfred von Richthofen (the so-called 'Red Baron), British Captain Alfred Ball and Frenchman Reno Paul Fonck Rifles Each infantryman carried a rifle, which was far more destructive than the muskets carried by soldiers in the Napoleonic era. Propaganda Internees Economy Censorship 6.Word match up. • The process of limiting access to information • information of a biased nature, used to promote a point of view • a person who is confined as a prisoner, especially for political or military reasons. • the production and consumption of goods and services and the supply of money. Censorship, The War Precautions Act, passed by parliament on 29 October 1914, affected virtually every area of Australian life. It gave enormous powers to the federal government, including censorship of the press and powers to punish a wide variety of activities that, in the opinion of the government, would harm the war effort. When the war started there were more than 1800 periodicals of various kinds published in Australia. The Censor's staff worked hard to ensure that no information of any use to the enemy was published. Publishers who broke the censorship laws could be fined and their journalists imprisoned. Propaganda The government also made great use of propaganda to persuade the Australian people to support the war. In particular, posters were produced to encourage young men to volunteer for the AIF. The most effective posters had simple messages, played on clear themes and aimed to provoke an immediate and strong emotional reaction from the viewer. Treatment of enemy In the 1911 Census it was calculated that there were roughly 35 000 people of German and Austro-Hungarian origin living in Australia. As war broke out, wild stories circulated of German spies, airships and submarines being active in and around Australia. With the passing of the War Precautions Act, the federal government now had the power to intern these enemy aliens. Internment camps were created around Australia, including at Rottnest Island in Western Australia, Enoggera in Queensland and Torrens Island in South Australia. However, this was costly so, in 1915, all the inmates were moved to Holsworthy near Liverpool in New South Wales. The Australian Economy During the war, Britain was prepared to pay high prices for wheat, wool and other agricultural commodities exported from Australia. The only problem was finding enough ships to transport the goods to Britain. Despite the shortage of ships, Australian farmers did relatively well. Similarly, some Australian manufacturers benefited from the disruption to European industries. By 1918, more than 400 products that were previously imported were being made in Australia. One of these was the painkiller Aspro, developed by George Nicholas in Melbourne to replace the products that had previously been imported from Germany. There was also large investment in certain key industries that enabled Australia to build large industrial plants for the first time. For example, in 1915, BHP opened its first steelworks in Newcastle. However, while some did well, ordinary workers did not. Prices rose and wages fell in real terms. Working class families struggled badly, particularly if the husband had joined the AIF. As a result, many Labor Members of Parliament began to question the priorities of the Hughes government. They asked for a greater focus on Australian workers, rather than on the war effort. There were a growing number of strikes, particularly in New South Wales, to protest falling wages and stricter working conditions. The largest strike was in 1917 when nearly 80000 tram and railway workers went on strike in New South Wales against new working rules. Eventually the strikers, including a young Ben Chifley (who went on to become Prime Minister in 1945), were forced back to work. However, the bitterness among workers caused by events such as this lived on. 1. Write down the heading. ______________________________________________________________ 2. Number the paragraphs. 3. Write down the words you don’t know the meaning of or find difficult to spell. _____________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Highlight 5 nouns. Highlight 5 verbs. Highlight 5 adjectives. Highlight 3 adverbs. 5. Write down 3 things you have learnt from reading this passage. a. ___________________________________________________________________________________ b. ___________________________________________________________________________________ c. ___________________________________________________________________________________ Year 9 Hist – Australians at War 5 Reading Activity Just before dawn, on that first Anzac Day 84 years ago, the boats carrying the 1500 men who would make the first landing were moving through darkness towards these shores. All was silent, save for whispers of apprehension and the splash of oars. Ahead of them, two searchlights briefly pencilled the sky, then disappeared. Still silence. The leading boats touched the beach. The first Anzacs leaped out. A yellow beacon flared to the south and a single shot was heard. Then several more. And as the boats further out came in, the fire broke upon them from the heights above us. The silence and the waiting were over. And the key, as one of the Anzacs was later to say, ‘was being turned in the lock of hell’. All the demons of war were let loose as the day wore on. Some men died in the boats and on the beaches – many more in the bitter fighting up on the ridges – through scrub and ravines towards the third ridge. There were the sounds of gun fire and of bombs. And of the screams of combat, of suffering and of death. And occasionally through it all, so we are told, there came the voices of young soldiers singing: ‘Australia will be there’. And, in at least one instance, ‘This bit of the world belongs to us’. By the evening, 16,000 men of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps had landed here; of them some 2000 were dead or seriously wounded. And the Turkish defenders had forced the advance back to the second ridge – from which position, despite some small gains at huge cost, nothing essentially changed over the next eight months. There are now no living Anzacs who were here on that first day. The last survivor, Ted Matthews, an Australian signaller, died in December 1997. There are only a few remaining of the Anzacs who subsequently served here during the Gallipoli campaign. The last New Zealander, Doug Dibley, a stretcher-bearer, died a little more than fifteen months ago. The fourth last Australian, Frank Isaacs, died in Perth only this month. So few left who experienced – who can personally recall – the long months of stalemate, of attack and counterattack on pieces of hillside that were given soldiers’ names – Plugge’s Plateau (behind us), Quinn’s Post, MacLaggan’s Ridge, Johnston’s Jolly. Yet the story of those months, and of all that they involve, lives in our national histories and collective memories. For Anzac is not merely about loss. It is about courage, and endurance, and duty, and love of country, and mateship, and good humour and the survival of a sense of self-worth and decency in the face of dreadful odds. These were qualities and values the pioneers had discovered in themselves in what were, for Europeans, the new lands of Australia and New Zealand. They were tested here and on the ancient battlefields of Europe for the first time in the Great War. They were not found wanting. Speech by Sir William Deane: The Anzac Legend and Spirit. Address on the occasion of the Dawn Service, Anzac Cove, Sunday, 25 April 1999. Year 9 Hist – Australians at War 6 Reading activity This was not the Anzacs’ bloodiest campaign of that war. The casualties in France overwhelmed those of Gallipoli. But it was the first. And it was heroic even in failure. And what makes it unique is that it was here the people of our countries – Australia and New Zealand – found their nationhood. ‘Before the war who ever heard of Anzac,’ said their Commander-in-Chief, the British General Sir Ian Hamilton. ‘Hereafter’, he added, ‘who will ever forget it?’ The campaign failed, but the men were not defeated. There is a crucial difference. In a triumph of daring and initiative, over 35,000 Anzacs were evacuated during eleven December nights, with barely a casualty. With their boots muffled, the last of them came down from the heights to the beaches on 20 December, and into the boats that took them in darkness and silence back to the waiting ships. But their dead – our dead – remained behind. Here on the other side of the world from the lands they loved: over 2,700 New Zealanders and over 8,100 Australians. For many who were leaving that was the unbearable tragedy. In words which I quoted at Ted Matthews’ funeral, one of them wrote: ‘Not only muffled is our tread/To cheat the foe, We fear to rouse our honoured dead/To hear us go. Sleep sound, old friends – the keenest smart Which, more than failure, wounds the heart, Is thus to leave you – thus to part.’ Yet we are not apart. While this is Turkish land, it has become a sacred site of our nations. And we are united with those young Anzacs who were left here so long ago. Not only while we are here, honouring them and all that they bequeathed us. But also – constantly – in their and our homelands so far away. For there as well as here, their spirit walks abroad. To challenge, to guide and to inspire. For as long as we remember. For as long as our nations endure. No one can express all that this day means to us Australians and New Zealanders. It is, said Australia’s great historian Manning Clark, ‘about something too deep for words’. But in the stillness of the early dawn, and in the silence that will settle once more along this shoreline, we feel it in the quiet of our hearts. The sense of great sadness. Of loss. Of gratitude. Of honour. Of national identity. Of our past. Of the spirit, the depth, the meaning, the very essence of our nations. And of the human values which those first Anzacs – and those who came after them – embodied and which we, their heirs, must cherish and pass to the future. May they rest with God 1. What do you think are the main ideas in the speech? 2. What makes this speech sound different to the language we use in our everyday lives? 3. What types of feelings and atmosphere does it create for you? 4. Where was this speech given and at what time? 5. How might the time and location influence the content of the speech? 6. If you were at Gallipoli listening to the speech, what might you see around you, what might you feel and think about? 7. What personal qualities of the Australian servicemen and women did Sir William Deane identify? 8. Explain what you think Sir William Deane means by the Anzac legend or spirit. Year 9 Hist- Australia At War 7 Reading Activity. Put in the Capital letters where europe, north africa, asia, middle east, atlantic and pacific oceans, mediterranean area when 1939–1945 why germany had resented the loss of territories and wealth after its defeat in 1918. under its nazi government it seized back lost territory during the 1930s. its invasion of poland to grab land and resources pushed britain and france into a situation where its expansion had to be stopped. outline of the conflict the war began with the german invasion of poland in september 1939. the allies declared war against germany, but little then happened. in 1940, however, the germans overran most of western europe with their blitzkreig (‘lightning war’), and began bombing britain as a prelude to its invasion. the war also extended to an eastern front when germany invaded russia in june 1941. in december 1941 japan entered the war, and invaded most of asia and much of the pacific area. this brought the united states of america into the war. in may 1945 germany surrendered, and in august the united states dropped atomic bombs on hiroshima and nagasaki, bringing about japan’s surrender. australian involvement the royal australian navy (ran) participated in operations against italy after its entry into the war in june 1940. a small number of australians flew in the battle of britain in august and september of the same year, but the australian army was not engaged in combat until 1941, when the 6th, 7th and 9th divisions joined allied operations in the mediterranean and north africa. following early successes against italian forces, the australians and other allied forces suffered defeat at the hands of the germans in greece, crete and north africa. in june and july 1941 australians participated in the successful allied invasion of syria, a mandate of france and ally of the vichy (pro-german) government. up to 14 000 australians held out against repeated german attacks in the libyan port of tobruk, where they were besieged between april and august 1941. after being relieved at tobruk, the 6th and 7th divisions departed from the mediterranean theatre for the war against japan. the 9th division remained to play an important role in the allied victory at el alamein in october 1942 before it, too, left for the pacific. (by the end of 1942 the only australians remaining in the mediterranean theatre were airmen serving either with no. 3 squadron royal australian air force (raaf) or in the royal air force.) japan entered the war in december 1941 and swiftly achieved a series of victories which resulted in the occupation of most of south-east asia and large areas of the pacific by the end of march 1942. singapore fell in february, with the loss by death or capture of an entire australian division. after the bombing of darwin that same month, all ran ships in the mediterranean theatre, as well as the 6th and 7th divisions, returned to defend australia. in march 1942, after the defeat of the netherlands east indies, japan’s southward advance began to lose strength, easing australian fears that an invasion was imminent. the threat of invasion receded further as the allies won a series of decisive battles: in the coral sea, at midway, on imita ridge and the kokoda track, and at milne bay and buna. further allied victories against the japanese followed in 1943. australian troops were mainly engaged in land battles in new guinea, the defeat of the japanese at wau and clearing japanese soldiers from the huon peninsula—australia’s largest and most complex offensive of the war, not completed until april 1944. the australian army also began a new series of campaigns in 1944 against isolated japanese garrisons stretching from borneo to bougainville; this involved more australian troops than were used at any other time in the war. australian troops were still fighting in borneo when the war ended in august 1945. while australia’s major effort from 1942 onwards was directed at defeating japan, thousands of australians continued to serve with the raaf in europe and the middle east. even though more australian airmen fought against the japanese, losses among those flying against germany were far higher. australians were particularly prominent in bomber command’s offensive against occupied europe. some 3500 australians were killed in this campaign, making it the costliest of the war. in world war ii over 39 000 australians gave their lives, and 30 000 australian servicemen and servicewomen were taken prisoner. two-thirds of those taken prisoner were captured by the japanese during their advance through south-east asia in the first few weeks of 1942. while those who became prisoners of the germans had a strong chance of returning home at the end of the war, one-third of prisoners of the japanese died in captivity. nurses had gone overseas with the aif in 1940, but during the early years of the war women were generally unable to make a significant contribution to the war effort in any official capacity. labour shortages forced the government to allow women to take a more active role in war work, and in february 1941 the raaf received cabinet approval to establish the women’s auxiliary australian air force (waaaf). at the same time, the navy also began employing female telegraphists, a breakthrough that eventually led to the establishment of the women’s royal australian naval service (wrans) in april 1941. the australian women’s army service (awas) was established in october 1941 with the aim of releasing men from certain military duties in base units in australia for assignment with fighting units overseas. outside the armed services, the australian women’s land army (awla) was established to encourage women to work in rural industries; other women in urban areas took up employment in industries such as munitions production. statistics almost a million australians, both men and women, served in world war ii. over 39 000 australian servicemen and women died as a result of the combat, including 8296 as prisoners of war. In the Western European Theatre of World War II, air power became crucial throughout the war. Superior German aircraft, aided by ongoing introduction of design and technology innovations, allowed the German armies to overrun Western Europe with great speed in 1940, largely assisted by lack of Allied aircraft numbers. The world's first operational jet fighter, the Me sserschmitt262 could reach speeds of up to 800 kilometres per hour. In the design stages in 1939, it did not see active service until the final stages of the European war. After the defeat of Germany, Allied powers made extensive use of the jet technologies to develop new aircraft The backbone of Britain's air defences in World War II, were the Spitfires and Hurricane,. These two single-seated fighter planes played a crucial role in the Battle of Britain and were used throughout World War II by the British and their allies, Mass-produced on American assembly lines, the B-29 was mainly used in the later stages of the war against Japan. Its long range, enormous bomb load and ability to fly at high altitude made it a powerful weapon. During the war the Germans produced various Glide bomb weapons, which were the first smart bombs; the V-1 flying bomb, which was the first cruise missile weapon; and the V-2 rocket, the first ballistic missile weapon. Developed by Germany, the V-2 rocket was used in 1944 and 1945 mainly against England. This rocket carried a l-ton warhead and travelled at supersonic speed. The rockets could not be intercepted once launched and they caused heavy loss of civilian life. As a technology, rocketry continues to influence the nature of warfare in the 21st century with the use of cruise missiles in the war against Iraq highlighting their effectiveness. Naval warfare changed dramatically during World War II, with the ascent of the aircraft carrier to the premier vessel of the fleet, and the impact of increasingly capable submarines on the course of the war. The development of new ships during the war was somewhat limited due to the protracted time period needed for production, but important developments were often retrofitted to older vessels. The German U-boats were used primarily for stopping/destroying the resources from the United States and Canada coming across the Atlantic. Submarines were critical in the Pacific Ocean as well as in the Atlantic Ocean. Advances in submarine technology included the snorkel. Development of aircraft carriers really commenced in the 1920s because it was recognised that air cover was essential for the survival of naval forces. Used most extensively by the Japanese and Americans in the Pacific War, aircraft carriers today can transport and maintain hundreds of aircraft on what is effectively a floating air base. Japanese defences against Allied submarines were ineffective. Much of the merchant fleet of the Empire of Japan, needed to supply its scattered forces and bring supplies such as petroleum and food back to the Japanese Archipelago, were sunk. This kept them from training adequate replacements for their lost aircrews and even forced the navy to be based near its oil supply. Among the warships sunk by submarines was the war's largest aircraft carrier, the Shinano While used in the final years of World War I, the tank became one of the strike weapons of World War II. Tanks were innovatively used by the Germans in their blitzkrieg campaigns, and the Allied powers quickly adjusted the way they used these mobile mounted and armoured gun platforms to employ similar tactics to the Germans. Many countries during the interwar years worked on the development of their own system for long-range detection of aircraft and ships. It was, however, the British, in the Battle of Britain, who first showed just how important an early warning system was in modern warfare. Draw the new weapons of WWII Technology played a crucial role in determining the outcome of World War II. Much of it was developed during the interwar years of the 1920s and 1930s, some were developed in response to valuable lessons learned during the war, and some were beginning to be developed as the war ended. Effects on Warfare Almost all types of technology were customized, although major developments were: • Weaponry: ships, vehicles, aircraft, artillery, rocketry, small arms; and biological, chemical, and atomic weapons • Logistical support: vehicles necessary for transporting soldiers and supplies, such as trains, trucks, ships, and aircraft • Communications and intelligence: devices used for navigation, communication, remote sensing, and espionage • Medicine: surgical innovations, chemical medicines, and techniques • Industry: the technologies employed at factories and production/distribution centres. Year 9 His- Australia At War 8 – Nature of Warfare - Overview 19. ____________ 20. ____________ 21. ____________ 22. ___________ 23. ____________ 24. ____________ 25. ____________ 26. ____________ 27. ____________ 28. ____________ 29. ____________ 30. ____________ 31. ___________ 32. ____________ 33. ____________ 34. ____________ 35. ____________ 36 ____________ 37. ____________ 38.____________ 39.____________ 40.____________ 41.____________ 42.____________ 43.____________ Extract from Peter Fitzsimons’ bok Kokoda, p 84 Australiens in the territory panicked, convinced that the bombing was simply the classic Japanese softeneng up of defence before an imminent invasion. The roads leading out of Darwin were clogged with refugees, som of whom were deserting soldiers. Such was the certainty that an invasion was occurring that, before fleeing, meny people burnt their hoses and sheds to deny the Japanese any succour, and the mowd was very grim 15. ____________ 16. ____________ 17. ____________ 18. ____________ Prime minister john Curtiy speaking shortly after the bombing In this first battle on Australian soel it will be a source of pride to the public to know that the armed ferces and the civilians comported themselwes with the gallantry that is traditional in the people of our stork. Extract from the Brisbane courier mail, 21 February 1942e Darwin was bombed twice yesterday by Japanese warplanes. Ninetty three bombers, with fighter escorts, took part in the rads, the first on the mainland of Australie. Four raiders were broght down. Damage to property was considerable. There were some casualtees. Details are not yet available. The first attack was made at 10.50 am by 72 twinengined bombers, and lasted an hour. It was concentrated on the town and chipping in the harbour. There were some casualties and some damage was don to service installations. The cecond raid was made in the afternoon by 21 bombirs. Last night the prim minister, Mr Curtin, said, “though information did not disclose details of casualties, it must be obvious thet we have suffered…we must face this test with fortitude and fight grimlee and unflinchingly. Australian forces and civilians konducted themselves with gallantry. Darwin had been bombed, but not conquired.” 1. _____________ 2. _____________ 3. _____________ 4. _____________ 5. _____________ 6. _____________ 7. _____________ 8. _____________ 9. _____________ 10. ____________ 11. ____________ 12. ____________ 13. ____________ 14. ____________ The bombng of Darwin On 19 February 1942, Darwin was bombed. Estimates very but it would seam the town was attacked by about 90 Japanese planes. The aim of the Japanece was to cripple the air base and end Darwin's ability to be used as a base for acsions against their advance through the east indies. The two Japanese raids on that day did considerable damag. Eight chips were now at the bottom of the harbour, the main RAAF airfield had bene heavily damaged, 23 planes had been destroyed and their was major damage to buildings. 243 Australians died during the atacks. This was not to be Darwin's only taste of war. It would be attackd another 64 times. Other towns in Australia's far north were alqo attacked such as brome, Katherinne, derby and Wingham. Consider theis three versions of the events of the bombing of Darwin. Year 9 Hist – Australian at War 9 Reading Activity Find the spelling mistakes Year 9 Hist – Australia at War 10 Reading Activity. Put in Capital letters, full stops and commas and correct spelling mistakes. midget submarine attack on sydney harbour in late may and early june 1942 a group of five japanese submarines made a series of attacks on sydney and the nearby port of newcastle on the night of may 31 three midget submarines entered sydney harbour one was/were caught in a boom net placed across the harbour while the other two followed the manly ferry into the harbour one of the midget subs fired a torpedo at a small royal australian navy ship kuttabul killing 21 people sydney harbour defense during world war ii barbed wire was/were placed on sydney’s beaches to stop a land invasion and a boom net was/were placed across sydney harbour to prevent enemy submarines from entering the net had gates to allow vessels to enter and leave the harbour the anti-submarine vessel hmas yandra patrolled near the harbour entrance and a similar vessel hmas bingera was/were on stand-by at the naval anchorage in woolloomooloo the minesweepers hmas goonambee and hmas samuel benbow was/were located in watson's bay six channel patrol boats armed with depth charges and four unarmed auxiliary patrol boats was/were also on duty in the vicinity of the boom gates the midget submarine attack at about 430pm on may 31 1942 the three midget submarines was/were launched one was/were detected by harbour defenses at about 800pm but was/were not precisely located until it became entangled in the net a channel patrol boat dropped three depth charges that failed to explode due to a lack of water depth before another patrol boat was/were able to launch its own depth charges the midget sub’s two crew members lieutenant kenshi chuma and petty officer takeshi ohmori blew up themselves and the sub to avoid capture at 948pm a second midget sub entered the harbour and headed west towards the sydney harbour bridge it was/were also detected and a general alarm was/were sounded at 1027pm the second sub entered the harbour and was/were detected by a patrol boat which dropped six depth charges near or on it these caused serious damage to the sub and the crew of lieutenant keiu matsuo and petty officer masao tsuzuku committed suicide with their handguns to avoid capture by this time the waters of the inner harbour was/were well-illuminated by searchlights and a third midget sub was/were spotted by allied personnel who then fired upon it the midget submarine's crew sub-lieutenant katsuhisa ban and petty officer namori ashibe returned fire with two torpedoes one torpedo ran ashore on garden island without exploding the other struck the harbour bed beneath the ship kuttabul where it exploded sinking the ship and killing 21 sailors the third midget sub then disappeared with its crew before it could reunite with the larger japanese submarines from which it had been launched it has never been found and is believed to have sunk somewhere near or in sydney harbour aftermath the raid was/were the first time that sydney had been attacked by enemy military forces and is the only such attack to have ever taken place although the raid lacked the psychological impact of the air raids on darwin several weeks earlier and it failed to sink any major warships it nevertheless represented a symbolic victory for japan the bodies of four of the japanese submariners was/were recovered the japanese seamen was/were cremated with full military honours and their ashes was/were returned to their families in japan by way of a neutral country two of the japanese midget submarines was/were raised and used to construct a composite midget submarine this submarine toured australia during the war and is now on display at the australian war memorial. Year 9 Hist – Australians at War 11 Reading Activity Prisoners of War Few Japanese soldiers allowed themselves to be taken prisoner, choosing to fight to the death or commit suicide rather than be captured. This way of thinking left the Japanese unprepared for the large number of Allied soldiers who became their prisoners after the surrender of Singapore. A total of 130 22 000 Australians. Of these, 000 Allied soldiers were imprisoned by the Japanese, including over one in three died from starvation, work, punishments or diseases for which there were no medicines to treat. Many Allied prisoners were detained at Singapore in the Changi prison, which was a modern facility but not large enough for the large number of prisoners. Allied prisoners were also sent to camps in Japan, Burma, Manchuria and Formosa. Camps were encircled with barbed wire or high wooden fencing and those who attempted escape would be executed in front of other prisoners. In some camps the Japanese also executed ten other prisoners as well. For obvious reasons, escape attempts from Japanese camps were rare. From Changi, prisoners were sent by train to work on the Thai-Burma Railway (The Death Railway) which the Japanese planned to use as a supply route for an attack on India and other countries in the vicinity. Many prisoners died while working on the railway from tropical diseases, as well as starvation and exhaustion. Soldiers that were too ill or exhausted to work were shot by the Japanese. An estimated 16 000 prisoners died during the construction of the Thai-Burma Railway. Sir Edward ‘Weary’ Dunlop Sir Edward ‘Weary’ Dunlop was an Australian surgeon. In 1939 he joined the Australian Army Medical Corps. Dunlop was sent to Israel, Egypt and Greece. He also worked at Tobruk and was then sent to Java, in Indonesia. In March 1942, the hospital in Indonesia where Dunlop worked was captured by the Japanese. Dunlop was made a prisoner of war (POW). At first he was sent to Changi. Later he was sent to a prison camp in Thailand. Conditions in the Thai camp were very harsh. The Japanese forced the POWs to work on the Thai–Burma railway. The prisoners were weak and didn’t have the right tools to build a railway. What did Sir Edward ‘Weary’ Dunlop do? ● Dunlop constantly protected other prisoners. ● Prisoners often suffered from diseases such as malaria and beriberi. Dunlop did his best to keep sick prisoners alive, but he had limited medical supplies. ● Dunlop operated on wounded prisoners. Often, the only light he had was from kerosene lamps. ● As an army medical officer, Dunlop decided which prisoners were fit enough to work. Why is Sir Edward ‘Weary’ Dunlop remembered? Dunlop is remembered because he was a respected officer, and a talented surgeon who showed great courage. An example of Dunlop’s courage was his saving of the life of another POW called Bill Griffiths. The Japanese were going to kill Griffiths but Dunlop stood in front of the Japanese bayonets and refused to move until the Japanese promised not to kill him. Weary? Sir Edward always worked extremely hard. The nickname ‘Weary’ comes from a play on words. ‘Dunlop’, Sir Edward’s surname, is also a brand of car tyres. ‘Tyre’ sounds like ‘tire’, meaning ‘needing to rest’. Weary also means tired, or needing to rest. This is an example of traditional Australian humour. 1. Why were Japanese POW camps horrendous? _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Why did the Japanese treat the POWs so badly? _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Why do we remember Weary Dunlop? _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________________________ Attitudes 800000 aeroplanes clothing manufacturing retail transport workforce armed accountancy farming factories During World War II, Australia had about _ _ _ _ _ _ men in the a_ _ _ _ services. This created a huge shortage of l_ _ _ _ _, so women became involved in industries like m_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _, transport and f_ _ _ _ _ _. Women’s involvement in the w_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ during World War I had changed a_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ to women in the workplace. Women were becoming more involved in r_ _ _ _ _ and office work, and by 1939, it was the accepted thing for a girl leaving school to find a job. During the war, women were most commonly employed in: • manufacturing industries making food, c_ _ _ _ _ _ _ and machines • shops and retail • government offices and in t_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ like buses or trains • banks • insurance and a_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ • munitions and _ _ _ _ _ _ _s producing ships and a_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ advertisements control experienced rationing manpowered’ previously employment constitution participate affected minister wartime employment services periods reinforced agricultural clothing resources enormous Year 9 Hist: Australia At War 12 Reading Activity Australian Government Controls on the Home front 1939-45 On 9 September 1939, the National Security Act became law. The Act e_________ the Australian Government to invoke compulsory clauses of the Defence Act and to c _________ areas that it was not able to control under the existing C______________. New laws and regulations were required to help win the war and they a__________ many areas of the day-to-day life of ordinary Australians lives. Men and women were ‘m_____________ (ordered) into essential industries with many women entering the work force taking on jobs p ____________ only available to men. For the first time women were recruited into the three armed s __________ in non-medical auxiliary roles. Despite their importance in the war effort, female s__________ were far lower than those of their male counterparts. Although many of their jobs d_____________ at the end of the war, the new freedoms many women had e_____________ during the war years exposed them to wider and more varied e____________ opportunities. This increase in wartime production meant that Australia experienced almost full e____________ during the war years. Civilians, as well as the troops both at home and o__________, needed to be fed. New rationing regulations were imposed on Australian men, women and c__________ in order to cope with the huge demands placed on both a______________ producers and manufacturers. Petrol rationing was introduced in 1940 and, in 1942, Prime M__________ John Curtin introduced personal identity cards and ration books for clothing and food. The new r___________ regulations included food items such as meat, tea, butter and sugar as well as c__________ and footwear. Prices were pegged and daylight saving and shorter holiday p_________ were introduced to boost production hours. Power blackouts and ‘brownouts’, standard w_________ air raid precautions in cities and coastal areas, also saved precious r___________. The Australian Government also introduced a National Savings Campaign to raise the e__________ sums of money necessary to fund the war. Intensive publicity campaigns e____________ Australians to donate to the new war loans funds and to p _____________ in whatever work they could do to assist the war effort. A________________ and articles in newspapers and magazines and government-sponsored radio programs all r____________ and encouraged the new wartime lifestyle but it was the rationing of so many c __________ goods that really forced Australians to practise thriftiness in their everyday lives.