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BIOL241
Joints, Muscles (Chapters 8 -10)
Objectives for Unit 4:
1. Identify and describe the characteristics of tendons, ligaments, and articular cartilage
2. List all the types of joints by their functional classification and give an example of each
including synarthroses (suture, gomphosis, synchondrosis, synostosis), amphiarthroses
(syndesmosis, symphysis), and diarthroses (synovial: hinge, gliding, pivot, ellipsoid, saddle,
and ball-and-socket)
3. Diagram and describe a synovial joint including the following: synovial cavity, articular
cartilage, joint capsule, synovial membrane, synovial fluid, perisoteum, and articulating bones.
4. Identify the type of joint between any two bones in the skeleton (that we discuss). Know the
basic structure and function of the specific joint examples mentioned in class (shoulder, hip,
elbow, knee, back, TMJ)
5. Identify and describe the various types of movements possible at the joints including flexion,
extension, hyperextension, dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, abduction, adduction, rotation,
circumduction, inversion, eversion, protraction, retraction, supination, pronation, elevation,
depression, and opposition. Give an example of a joint that illustrates each type of motion.
6. Know the functions and characteristics of skeletal muscle tissue and of the other types of
muscle tissue (smooth, cardiac)
7. Describe each of the following structural elements of muscle: epimysium, perimysium,
endomysium, fascicle, tendon, aponeurosis, tendon sheath, intercalated disc, myofibril, fast
fibers, slow fibers, and intermediate fibers.
8. Know the microscopic structure and function of the muscle including the sacrolemma,
sacroplasm, T-tubules, sarcoplasmic reticulum, nuclei, myofibril, myofilament, actin, myosin,
tropomyosin, troponin, titin, cross-bridge, sarcomere, Z line, M line, A band, I band, H zone,
zone of overlap.
9. Understand and describe the process of muscle contraction including the role of Ca2+, the
role of ATP, the steps leading to contraction and the steps leading to relaxation.
10. Understand and describe a motor end plate including the type of neurotransmitter used and
the steps involved in transmitting an electrical signal from nerve to muscle
11. Describe the action of (and give an example of a muscle that illustrates) each of the
following terms: flexor and extensor, abductor and adductor, levator and depressor, supinator
and pronator, & synergist and antagonist.
12. Know the two factors that affect the tension produced by a muscle fiber and define the
terms twitch, tetanus, motor unit, recruitment, rotation, isotonic contraction and isometric
contraction.
NSCC Human Anatomy & Physiology I
Page 1 of 2
BIOL241
Joints, Muscles (Chapters 8 -10)
13. Understand the different ways that muscle fibers make ATP including aerobic respiration
and anaerobic glycolysis, and creatine phosphate. Know the different metabolic demands of
fast, slow and intermediate fiber types when at rest and at peak exertion and understand the
differences among these three fiber types
14. Identify on a model or diagram each of the muscles listed on the muscles list and origins
and insertions for those listed in bold; know the general function of each muscle (e.g. biceps
brachii muscle flexes the forearm).
NSCC Human Anatomy & Physiology I
Page 2 of 2