Download Exam 4 Objectives Bio241

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Muscles (Chp 8-10)
1. List all the types of joints by their structural classification and for each category, state all examples
(ie. for fibrous joints, there are sutures, syndesmoses and gomphoses). State all of the types of
synovial joints, describe them, and recognize examples of each.
2. Diagram and describe a synovial joint, including the six features of synovial joints. In general,
understand the following terms: joint/synovial cavity, articular cartilage, articular (joint) capsule,
synovial membrane, synovial fluid, supporting ligaments, articulating bones.
3. List and describe the various accessory structures present at synovial joints. What is bursitis?
4. Know the basic structure and function of the specific joint examples mentioned in class (shoulder,
hip, elbow, knee). Basic means: participating bones, and bone features, general stability/strength
of joint (and what provides this strength), type of joint, and what movements are allowed.
5. Identify and describe the various types of movements possible at the joints including flexion,
extension, hyperextension, dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, abduction, adduction, rotation,
circumduction, inversion, eversion, protraction, retraction, supination, pronation, elevation,
depression, and opposition. Give an example of a joint that illustrates each type of motion.
6. Compare and contrast osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. What is gout? Lyme disease?
7. Know the functions and characteristics of: skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle.
8. Describe each of the following structural elements of muscle (and developing muscle):
epimysium, perimysium, endomysium, satellite cell, myoblast, fascicle, tendon, aponeurosis.
9. Know the microscopic structure and function of the muscle including the sacrolemma, sacroplasm,
sarcoplasmic reticulum, transverse (T)-tubules, nuclei, myofibril, myofilament, actin, myosin,
tropomyosin, troponin, titin, cross-bridge, sarcomere, Z line, M line, A band, I band, H zone, zone
of overlap. Understand the sliding filament theory.
10. Understand and describe how skeletal muscle activity is controlled at a motor end plate including
the type of neurotransmitter used and the steps involved in transmitting an electrical signal from
nerve to muscle. Be familiar with: synapse, synaptic vesicle, acetylcholine, acetylcholine
receptors (Na+ channels), acetylcholinesterase, and the “motor end plate”. What is meant by
Excitation-Contraction coupling?
11. Understand and describe the process of muscle contraction (the contraction cycle) including the
role of Ca2+ , the role of ATP, the steps leading to contraction and the steps leading to relaxation.
Know all of the proteins involved.
12. Know the two factors that affect the tension produced by a muscle fiber and define the terms
twitch, tetanus, motor unit, recruitment, isotonic contraction, (concentric and eccentric), and
isometric contraction.
13. Understand the latent period, contraction phase and relaxation phase of a single muscle twitch.
14. Understand: wave summation, tetanus, recruitment.
15. Describe the mechanism by which muscle fibers obtain the energy to power contractions. Be able
to compare the metabolism occurring in a resting muscle to a muscle with moderate activity to a
muscle at peak activity.
16. Understand the characteristics of and differences between slow oxidative, fast oxidative and fast
glycolytic fibers.
17. What is Duchenne muscular dystrophy?
18. Describe the action of (and give an example of a muscle that illustrates) each of the following
terms: flexor and extensor, abductor and adductor, levator and depressor, supinator and pronator,
& synergist and antagonist.
19. Identify on a model or diagram each of the muscles listed on the muscles list and know the
general function of each (e.g. biceps brachii muscle flexes the forearm).
Know the location and action of all muscles listed. Know the origin and insertion of the
muscles listed in bold letters.
Head and Face
-frontal belly
-occipital belly
orbiculuaris oculi
corrugator supercilii
orbiculuaris oris
depressor labii inferioris
levator labii superioris
zygomaticus major
sternocleidomastoid (both
splenius capitis (posterior neck)
Abdominal Region
external oblique
internal oblique
transversus abdominus
rectus abdominus
Thorax and Ribs
pectoralis major
serratus anterior
external intercostals
internal intercostals
Back and Shoulder
erector spinae
rhomboid major
splenius capitis (repeated)
levator scapulae
latissimus dorsi
teres major
Upper Arm
biceps brachii (short & long heads)
triceps brachii
Lower Arm
flexor carpi radialis
flexor carpi ulnaris
flexor digitorum superficialis
flexor pollicis longus
extensor carpi radialis brevis
extensor carpi ulnaris
extensor digitorum
extensor pollicis longus
Hip and Thigh
psoas major
gluteus maximus
gluteus medius
adductor longus
Upper Leg
quadriceps femoris
-rectus femoralis
-vastus lateralis
-vastus medialis
-vastus intermedius
adductor longus (repeated)
-biceps femoris
Lower Leg
tibialis anterior
fibularis (peroneus) longus
flexor digitorum longus
extensor digitorum longus
flexor hallucis longus
extensor hallucis longus