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SOUTH ASIA
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INTRODUCING SOUTH ASIA
• Sometimes called the
.
• Home to about 1/4 of
the world’s people.
• Region of great
cultural contrasts.
• Home to 39% of the
world’s poor who
earn less than $1 a
day.
Indian Subcontinent
Subcontinent
• Landmass like a
continent, only smaller
• Bordered by the
(1)Himalayan
Mountains, (2)Arabian
Sea, (3)Bay of Bengal,
and (4)Indian Ocean.
 Is it’s own small
tectonic plate moving
north (creates the
Himalayan Mountains)
Picture of south Asia
Bay of
Bengal
Arabian
Sea
Indian Ocean
GEOGRAPHY
• Area was created when
the Indian Plate collided
with the Eurasian Plate.
• Home to Himalayas –
world’s highest mountain.
• 3 major rivers:
• I. Indus
• II. Ganges
– “brings life to the
people”
• III.
Brahmaputra
The Himalayas
• More than a 1,000
miles long & 100
miles wide
• Tallest mountains in
the world
• Called the “Roof of
the World”
Mt. Everest
• World’s highest
peak
• 29,035 feet
Sherpas – mountain people, who
are used as mountain guides
Maldives Islands
• Atoll Islands, formed by the remains of
sunken volcanoes, and coral reefs
• Are an archipelago – chain of islands
• The Maldives comprise over 1,200 islands
CLIMATE
• (1)Humid subtropical,
(2)Tropical wet and dry,
(3) Tropical wet,
(4)Semiarid (5) Desert.
• Monsoons affect climate
of South Asia.
• Coastal regions are
often struck by tropical
cyclones.
• Earthquakes are
common in the region.
Monsoons
• Seasonal winds
• Between October and May DRY winds
• Between June and September  WARM
moist air
– Very heavy rains during this time
– 450 inches of rain (37 ½ feet!!!)
– Joyous Celebration = good for crops (rice)
Monsoon diagram
Cyclone
• A hurricane that occurs in South Asia/
Indian Ocean
Vocabulary Time!
•
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
On the Left Side of your notebook, write the term and
definition; on the Right Side of your notebook, draw a
picture for EACH term!
Subcontinent
8. Archipelago
Alluvial Plain
9. Illiteracy
Atoll
10.Constitutional Monarchy
Monsoon
Cyclone
Caste System
Sherpa
•
Human Geography
HISTORY
Ancient civilizations
developed in the Indus River
valley.
• Portuguese = 1st to colonize
• 1858: Most of the area
officially became part of the
British Empire. Considered
the “Jewel in the Crown” of
the empire.
• Demands for independence
around early 20th century
were led by Gandhi in India.
History of India
• Began in the Indus Valley
– The Indus River (modern day Pakistan)
– Controlled by Hindus and also Muslims
• European’s came to the area looking for
spices
• The British gained control of the area
and established direct rule (period
called the raj)
Creation of Modern India
• Ruled by Britain as
a colony
• Left after WWII
and split India into
two countries 
India and Pakistan
– India became a
Hindu state
– Pakistan a Muslim
state
Fighting over Kashmir region
CULTURE
• Home to 3 major
religions.
Hinduism
Buddhism
Sikhism
• Indus Valley
Civilization = 1 of the
world’s first advanced
civilizations.
Hinduism
• A complex religion that has many gods
Cows are sacred to Hindus
* Karma
• Moral consequences of a person’s
actions
* Reincarnation
• The rebirth of souls after death, and
the moral actions of a person determine
how a person is reincarnated.
When the cycle
of reincarnation
is over, a person
becomes one
with god –
Nirvana or
“Moksha”
* Caste System
• A system of social classes –
can only move between castes
through reincarnation.
– Four basic castes
• The Brahmans (priests and
scholars)
• The Kshatriyas (rulers and
warriors)
• The Vaisyas (farmers and
merchants)
• The Sudras (artisans and laborers)
• * The untouchables (dirty jobs)
The Brahmans
• Highest “class” or caste
• Teachers, Priests, Doctors
Kshatriyas
• Kings and Nobility
• Warriors
• Second most prestigious
Vaishyas
• Merchants and Farmers
Sudras
• Artists
• Workers
• Service Providers
Untouchables
• Excluded from society all
together
• Outcasts
• Also known as “dalits”
• Face violence and
discrimination
• http://ngm.nationalgeographic
.com/ngm/0306/feature1/
Buddhism
• Founded by Siddhartha Gautama, known
as “Buddha”
• A philosophy of living life that is similar to
Hinduism
• Use mandalas (geometric
designs) to symbolize the
universe and aid in
meditation
* Nirvana
• Enlightenment
• When one meditates and achieves
the highest level of spirituality
Sikhism (SEEKism)
• A monotheistic religion
• God=Vahiguru (Sikh God has
no gender is not male or female…)
• Guru’s= religious teachers
• 6th largest world religion
• Main goal is to avoid the 5
evils…
–
–
–
–
–
Ego
Anger
Greed
Attachment
Lust
Sikhism
• Originated in Northern India around the 16th
century
• Founder: Guru Nanak
– 9 other gurus (enlightened leaders)
• Beliefs:
–
–
–
–
–
REJECT CASTE SYSTEM
1 God
KARMA
Salvation through meditation
Samsara (repetitive cycle of birth, life, and death)
Elements of Hinduism and Islam
Reincarnation
Sacred Text: Shri Guru Granth
Sikhism Practices/Celebrations
• Nam simra: repetition of divine name
• Attend Gurdwara: Temple
• Must wear the 5K’s when baptized.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
•
Kesa (long hair-turban used to cover hair)
Kangah (comb)
Kacha (short pants)
Kara (metal bracelet)
Kirpan (ceremonial dagger)
Drinking of alcohol and smoking is prohibited
Gandhi and Mother Teresa
Persuaded British to leave
India through non-violent
actions
Catholic Nun from
Calcutta;
Helped the
poor w/various
programs
Human Geography
AGRICULTURE
• 60% of the population are
farmers.
• Slow rate of industrialization.
• Produce calicoes (fine fabric
woven from cotton and printed
with colorful patterns).
• Lack of industrial resources.
Has 1 billion people, and is growing!!!
Literacy = the # of people who can read.
PROBLEMS
• Rapid population growth.
• Poverty grows with
population.
• Poor communication
systems.
• Lack of education.
• Low literacy rates.
• Dependence on farming
– 2/3s = farmers
• Solutions
– Land reform – redistribute land more
fairly
– The Green Revolution – new
farming techniques and better
varieties of grain to make land more
productive
Growing up in India p.571
• These young women from the state of Rajasthan
dress in traditional clothing to attend a fair.
Festivals of all kinds are part of life for people of
all ages in India. The traditional clothing worn by
females in India includes embroidered skirts, head
shawls, and lots of jewelry. In many places,
however, Western-style clothing has replaced the
traditional, especially for young people. Even
though changes are taking place, females in India
are treated differently from males both inside and
outside the home. Females, for example, have more
family responsibilities and less access to higher
education and professional jobs.
If you lived in India, you would
pass these milestones:
• You would receive some schooling, as Indian
law provides free education from age 6 – 14.
In some areas, though, you could be working
even before the age of 10.
• In school, you would study history, geography,
science, math, and moral education.
• You might be married at age 16 if you were a
female living in a rural area and at age 17 if
you were a female in an urban area
• You could enter the military at age 17 if you
were a male
• You could vote at age 18