Download Get Ready to Read (cont.)

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Infidel wikipedia, lookup

Nazarene (title) wikipedia, lookup

New Testament household code wikipedia, lookup

Supersessionism wikipedia, lookup

Christian denomination wikipedia, lookup

Judaizers wikipedia, lookup

Church Fathers wikipedia, lookup

Eastern Christianity wikipedia, lookup

Christian Zionism wikipedia, lookup

Christian naturism wikipedia, lookup

History of Christianity wikipedia, lookup

Jewish Christian wikipedia, lookup

German Christians wikipedia, lookup

Heresy in Christianity wikipedia, lookup

Christian culture wikipedia, lookup

Japanese Independent Churches wikipedia, lookup

History of Christian thought on persecution and tolerance wikipedia, lookup

Christian socialism wikipedia, lookup

Christian anarchism wikipedia, lookup

History of Eastern Christianity wikipedia, lookup

Christian ethics wikipedia, lookup

Christianization wikipedia, lookup

Christendom wikipedia, lookup

Christianity and violence wikipedia, lookup

Persecution of Christians in the modern era wikipedia, lookup

Judeo-nazarenism wikipedia, lookup

Christianity and other religions wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Chapter 10
The Rise of
Christianity
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
The Rise of
Christianity
Chapter Introduction
Section 1 The First Christians
Section 2 The Christian
Church
Section 3 The Spread of
Christian Ideas
Reading Review
Chapter Assessment
Click on a hyperlink to view
the corresponding slides.
The Rise of
Christianity
Chapter Objectives
• Describe how Jesus’ life, teachings,
and death led to the birth of a new
religion—Christianity. 
• Explain how Christianity became the
official religion of the Roman Empire. 
• Evaluate the connections between
religion and government during
Christianity’s early years.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
The First Christians
Get Ready to Read
Section Overview
This section describes the history of
Roman-Jewish interaction, as well as the
birth of Christianity.
The First Christians
Get Ready to Read (cont.)
Focusing on the Main Ideas
• Roman rule of Judaea led some Jews to
oppose Rome peacefully, while others
rebelled. 
• Jesus of Nazareth preached of God’s
love and forgiveness. He was eventually
crucified and then reported to have risen
from the dead. 
• Jesus’ life and a belief in his resurrection
led to a new religion called Christianity.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
The First Christians
Get Ready to Read (cont.)
Locating Places
• Jerusalem (juh·ROO·suh·luhm)
• Judaea (ju·DEE·uh) 
• Nazareth (NA·zuh·ruhth) 
• Galilee (GA·luh·LEE) 
Meeting People
• Jesus (JEE·zuhs) 
• Peter 
• Paul
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.

The First Christians
Get Ready to Read (cont.)
Building Your Vocabulary
• messiah (muh·SY·uh) 
• disciple (dih·SY·puhl) 
• parable (PAR·uh·buhl) 
• resurrection (REH·zuh·REHK·shuhn)
• apostle (uh·PAH·suhl) 
• salvation (sal·VAY·shuhn)
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.

The First Christians
Get Ready to Read (cont.)
Reading Strategy
Summarizing Information Complete a
diagram like the one on page 342 of your
textbook, showing the purposes of early
Christian churches.
The First Christians
The Jews and the Romans
• Jerusalem was the capital of the
kingdom of Israel. 
• During the 900s B.C., Israel was divided
into two kingdoms: Israel and Judah. 
• Emperor Augustus made Judah into a
Roman province called Judaea in A.D. 6. 
• The Zealots were Jews who rebelled
against the Romans in A.D. 66 to take
back their kingdom.
(page 343)
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
The First Christians
The Jews and the Romans (cont.)
• The Zealots were defeated and the
temple was destroyed. 
• The Jews rebelled again in A.D. 132 and
were defeated again. 
• In retaliation, the Romans forced the
Jews to leave Jerusalem and banned
them from ever returning.
(page 343)
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
The First Christians
The Life of Jesus
• A messiah is a deliverer. 
• The Jews believed God would send a
messiah to restore the kingdom. 
• Jesus, a Jew born in the city of
Nazareth, traveled throughout Judaea
preaching his ideas.
(pages 344–347)
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
The First Christians
The Life of Jesus (cont.)
• Jesus’ message was contained in a
group of sayings called the Sermon on
the Mount. 
• Jesus believed in
love and
forgiveness, not
simply following
religious laws.
(pages 344–347)
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
The First Christians
The Life of Jesus (cont.)
• Jesus used parables to give his
message. 
• Parables are stories
that use events from
everyday life to
express spiritual
ideas. 
• Jesus’ followers
believed he was the
messiah the Jews had
been waiting for.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
(pages 344–347)
The First Christians
The Life of Jesus (cont.)
• Leaders in Jerusalem charged Jesus
with treason and crucified him. 
• Jesus’ followers believe in Jesus’
resurrection, or rising from the dead. 
• They founded a
new religion
called
Christianity.
(pages 344–347)
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
The First Christians
The First Christians
• People who accepted Jesus as the
messiah were called Christians. 
• The Apostles were early Christian
leaders who helped establish churches
and spread Jesus’ word. 
• Peter and Paul were two of Jesus’
apostles. 
• Christians have different beliefs from
Jews.
(pages 348–350)
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
The First Christians
The First Christians (cont.)
• Christians believe Jesus is the Son of
God who came to save people. 
• Christians believe people can gain
salvation, or be saved from sin and
allowed to enter heaven, by accepting
Jesus. 
• Christians believe in the Trinity, or one
God who exists as three persons:
Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
(pages 348–350)
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
The Christian Church
Get Ready to Read (cont.)
Locating Places
• Rome 
Meeting People
• Constantine (KAHN·stuhn·TEEN) 
• Helena (HEHL·uh·nuh) 
• Theodosius (THEE·uh·DOH·shuhs)
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
The Christian Church
Get Ready to Read (cont.)
Building Your Vocabulary
• persecute (PURH·sih·KYOOT) 
• martyr (MAHR·tuhr) 
•
•
•
•
hierarchy (HY·uhr·AHR·kee) 
clergy (KLUHR·jee) 
laity (LAY·uh·tee) 
doctrine (DAHK·truhn) 
• gospel (GAHS·puhl) 
• pope
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
The Christian Church
Get Ready to Read (cont.)
Reading Strategy
Organizing Information Complete a
diagram like the one on page 351 of your
textbook, showing reasons for the growth
of Christianity.
The Christian Church
A Growing Faith
• Christianity spread throughout Rome. 
• Christianity became popular for several
reasons. 
• It appealed to the lower classes
because it offered them hope. 
• The ideals of Christianity were similar to
what the people already believed.
(pages 352–354)
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
The Christian Church
A Growing Faith (cont.)
• Also, Christianity gave people an
opportunity to be part of a caring group
of people. 
• Roman officials began to feel
threatened by Christians. 
• The Romans began to persecute, or
mistreat, the Christians in A.D. 64. 
• Martyrs are people willing to die rather
than give up their beliefs.
(pages 352–354)
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
The Christian Church
A Growing Faith (cont.)
• The Edict of Milan in A.D. 313 gave
religious freedom to all people and
made Christianity legal.
(pages 352–354)
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
The Christian Church
A Growing Faith (cont.)
• Helena, Constantine’s mother, helped
build churches in Rome and Jerusalem. 
• Theodosius, the emperor after
Constantine, made Christianity the
official religion of Rome in A.D. 392.
(pages 352–354)
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
The Christian Church
The Early Church
• Early Christians modeled their church
after the Roman Empire’s government
structure. 
• A hierarchy is an organization with
different levels of authority. 
• The Christian community’s hierarchy
included five levels: the laity, clergy,
bishops, archbishops, and patriarchs. 
• Church members were the laity.
(pages 355–356)
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
The Christian Church
The Early Church (cont.)
• Church leaders were the clergy. 
• Later, clergy were called priests. 
• Several churches grouped together form
a diocese, which was led by a bishop. 
• An archbishop was a bishop in charge
of an entire region. 
• The five leading archbishops were
known as patriarchs.
(pages 355–356)
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
The Christian Church
The Early Church (cont.)
• Doctrine is official church teaching. 
• Jesus’ followers, Matthew, Mark, Luke,
and John, left a written record of his
teachings. 
• Each of the apostles’ works
is called a gospel, and all
four gospels together are
part of the New Testament
of the Bible.
(pages 355–356)
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
The Christian Church
The Early Church (cont.)
• The pope was the bishop of Rome. 
• Gradually the pope claimed power over
other bishops. 
• The Latin-speaking churches in the
West that were led by the pope became
the Roman Catholic Church.
(pages 355–356)
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
The Spread of Christian
Ideas
Get Ready to Read
Section Overview
This section describes the relationship
between church and government in the
Byzantine Empire, as well as the spread
of Christianity.
The Spread of Christian
Ideas
Get Ready to Read (cont.)
Focusing on the Main Ideas
• Church and government worked closely
together in the Byzantine Empire. 
• Christians founded new communities
and spread their faith to various parts
of Europe.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
The Spread of Christian
Ideas
Get Ready to Read (cont.)
Locating Places
• Byzantine Empire (BIH·zuhn·TEEN
EHM·PYR) 
• Britain (BRIH·tuhn) 
• Ireland (EYER·luhnd) 
Meeting People
• Charlemagne (SHAHR·luh·MAYN) 
• Basil (BAY·zuhl) 
• Benedict (BEH·nuh·DIHKT)
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
The Spread of Christian
Ideas
Get Ready to Read (cont.)
Meeting People (cont.)
• Cyril (SUHR·uhl) 
• Patrick 
Building Your Vocabulary
• icon (EYE·KAHN) 
• iconoclast (eye·KAH·nuh·KLAST) 
• excommunicate
(EHK·skuh·MYOO·nuh·KAYT)
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
The Spread of Christian
Ideas
Get Ready to Read (cont.)
Building Your Vocabulary (cont.)
• schism (SIH·zuhm) 
• monastery (MAH·nuh·STEHR·ee)
• missionary (MIH·shuh·NEHR·ee)


Reading Strategy
Organizing Information Create a
diagram like the one on page 358 of your
textbook to show the reach of Christian
missionaries.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
The Spread of Christian
Ideas
The Byzantine Church
• The Greek-speaking Christians in the
East developed their own form of
Christianity, the Eastern Orthodox
Church. 
• The Byzantines believed their emperor
represented Jesus Christ on Earth. 
• The emperor appointed the patriarch of
Constantinople, the leader of the
Eastern Orthodox Church.
(pages 359–361)
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
The Spread of Christian
Ideas
The Byzantine Church (cont.)
• Different parts of the Eastern Orthodox
Church argued over the use of icons, or
images of Jesus, Mary, the saints, or
other Christian holy people. 
• In A.D. 726, Emperor Leo
III ordered all icons
removed from churches. 
• People who carried out
the order were known as
iconoclasts, or image
breakers.
(pages 359–361)
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
The Spread of Christian
Ideas
The Byzantine Church (cont.)
• The Byzantines did not accept the
pope’s claim that he was head of all
Christian churches, including the
Eastern Orthodox Church. 
• After stopping an invasion of Italy by the
Franks, the pope named Charlemagne, a
Frankish king, as Byzantine emperor. 
• The Eastern Orthodox Church and the
Roman Catholic Church eventually
excommunicated each other.
(pages 359–361)
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
The Spread of Christian
Ideas
The Byzantine Church (cont.)
• Excommunication is a declaration that
a person or group no longer belongs to
the church. 
• The split of the two churches was known
as a schism.
(pages 359–361)
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
The Spread of Christian
Ideas
Christian Ideas Spread
• Christianity helped people achieve order
after the fall of Rome. 
• Religious men called monks formed
communities called monasteries. 
• Religious women became nuns and
formed religious communities of their
own, called convents. 
• Paula was a widow who gave up her
wealth to build churches, a hospital, and
a convent in Palestine.
(pages 361–364)
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
The Spread of Christian
Ideas
Christian Ideas Spread (cont.)
• She also helped translate the Bible into
Latin. 
• Basil was a bishop who created a list of
rules for monks and nuns called the
Basilian Rule. 
• Benedict was an Italian monk who
created the Benedictine Rule, the rules
for Western monks.
(pages 361–364)
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
The Spread of Christian
Ideas
Christian Ideas Spread (cont.)
• Missionaries are people who teach their
religion to those who do not believe. 
• Cyril was a Byzantine missionary who
created the Cyrillic alphabet, so Slavic
people could read and understand the
Bible. 
• Christianity spread north of the
Byzantine Empire into Slavic countries
and west into Britain and Ireland.
(pages 361–364)
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
The Spread of Christian
Ideas
Christian Ideas Spread (cont.)
• Anglos and Saxons invaded Britain and
united to form the Anglo-Saxons. 
• The Celts, who lived in Britain before
the invasion of the Anglos and Saxons,
fled to Ireland. 
• Patrick was a priest who brought
Christianity to Ireland.
(pages 361–364)
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the information.
Spread of Christianity
A.D. 325
Spread of Christianity
A.D. 325–1100
The Rise of Christianity
Introduction
The First Christians
The Christian Church
The Spread of Christian Ideas
Sermon on the Mount
Click the speaker button to play the audio.
Focus on Everyday Life
Christian Catacombs
Christians believed in resurrection, the idea that the body would one
day reunite with the soul. For this reason, they would not allow their
dead bodies to be burned, which was the Roman custom. Also,
Roman law did not allow bodies to be buried aboveground. Therefore,
starting in the A.D. 100s, Christians buried their dead beneath the city
of Rome in a series of dark, cold, stench-filled
tunnels called catacombs. Each tunnel was about
8 feet high and less than 3 feet wide. Bodies were
stacked in slots along the sides of the tunnels. The
catacomb walls were painted with images from the
Bible or from Greek or Roman mythology. More
than five million bodies were buried under Roman
streets and buildings. Many of the Christians
buried there were martyrs who had been killed for
their beliefs.
Connecting to the Past
1. Why did Christians bury their dead in
catacombs?
The did not believe in cremation and it was
against the law to be buried aboveground.
2. What skills do you think would be necessary
to dig and plan catacombs?
You would need mathematics, engineering,
physics and physical skills as well as
physical strength.
Click the mouse button or press the
Space Bar to display the answer.
Jesus of Nazareth c. 6 B.C.–A.D. 30
Click the speaker button to play the audio.
Paul of Tarsus
Click the speaker button to play the audio.
C. A.D. 10–65