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Ancient Egypt &
Kush (Nubia)
Archaic Period
• Menes (Narmer)
– united upper and lower Egypt
– Egypt’s first Pharaoh
• “Great House”
– started Egypt’s first Dynasty
The Old Kingdom
2686 – 2181 BC
Pyramid Builders
• Pyramids
– tombs; Old Kingdom
• Engineering
– the application of scientific
knowledge for practical
purposes … uh … what?
– ex. using a 43.5° angle for
the pyramids to avoid
Pyramid Builders
• Imhotep
– master architect
• Djoser
– Step Pyramid
• Snefru
– Red Pyramid (true pyramid)
• Khufu (Cheops)
– Great Pyramid of Giza
• Afterlife
– life after death;
focus of Egyptian Religion
• Mummies
– help the “ka” find it’s body
• Ka
– life spirit
• Sarcophagus
– bone box; decorated coffin
• Canopic Jars
– held internal organs of mummy
Gods and Goddesses
• Re (Rah or Amen-Re)
– sun god
• Anubis
– god of the dead and
jackal headed
Gods and Goddesses
• Osiris
– god of the underworld
• Isis
– goddess of magic
• Horus
– sky god; god of the pharaohs
The Middle Kingdom
1991 – 1786 BC
Middle Kingdom
• “Renaissance”
– “rebirth” of Egypt
– classical period of art and literature
– Egypt conquers Kush and gains wealth
Middle Kingdom
• Hyksos
– invaders from Southwest Asia
– chariots and high-powered bows
• Ahmose
– defeated the
– started the
New Kingdom
The New Kingdom
1567 – 1085 BC
New Kingdom
• Queen Hatshepsut
– mother of Thutmose III
– ran things; expaned trade
– wore a beard !!!
Thutmose III (Tutmosis)
– killed his mom ???
– great conqueror
New Kingdom
• Akhenaton (Amenhotep IV)
– monotheism; worshipped Aton
“the sun disc”
• Tutankhamen (Tutankhaton)
– restored old religion
– buried in the Valley of the Kings
– tomb found in 1922 by Howard
New Kingdom
• Ramses the Great
– ruled for 67 years, 100 children
– great builder of temples
– defeated the Sea People
Egyptian Life and Culture
• Agriculture
– 80% of Egyptians
were poor farmers
• Hieroglyphics
– Egyptian writing system, one of the world’s
first, used symbols
• Papyrus
– long-lasting, paper-like
substance made from reeds
• Rosetta Stone
– a stone slab discovered in 1799 that was
inscribed with hieroglyphics and their Greek
meanings; best archaeological source for
translation of glyphs
• Pyramids
– Old Kingdom tombs
– Egypt’s most recognized symbol
• Temples
– Dedicated to
gods and
• Sphinx
– head of a person and
the body of a lion
– largest single-stone
statue ever
• Obelisk
– a tall, four-sided pillar that is pointed on
– like the Washington monument
• Tomb Paintings
– Murals
• Carvings
– “reliefs”
• Jewelry & Decorations
Nubian / Kushite Period
• Nubians (Kushites)
– Nubia conquered Egypt, then Egypt conquered Nubia
– known for their gold and jewelry
• Trade Network
– system of people in different lands
who trade goods back and forth
• Exports
– goods sent for sale in other countries or regions
• Imports
– goods brought in from other
countries or regions
Greek (Ptolemaic) Period
• Alexander the Great
– conquered Egypt and
becomes pharaoh; built
the Lighthouse at Pharos
and the Library of
• Ptolemy
– one of Alexander’s
generals, he was put in
charge of Egypt as
Alexander moved on to
other conquests
Roman Conquest
• Cleopatra
– Greek; descended from Ptolemy
– committed suicide rather than be
taken prisoner by Roman general
Octavian (later known as
Augustus Caesar)
– she was Egypt’s last pharaoh and
Egypt became Roman province