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I. Waves of
to the United
A. New Americans
More than 4 million
people immigrated to
the United States
between 1840 and 1860
 About 3 million were
German or Irish
B. Irish Immigrants
Left Ireland because
of potato famine
 Most were very poor
 Most were Catholic
Most settled near cities
 Women typically worked
as domestic servants
 Men usually worked as
unskilled labor
C. German Immigrants
Emigrated from Germany for
political reasons
 Many had nothing upon arrival
 Included Catholics, Jews and
 Most settled in rural Midwestern
states in order to farm
II. The Nativist
A. Native-born Americans
Feared losing jobs to
immigrants who worked
for lower wages
 Were typically Protestants
who distrusted Catholics
 Nativists—Americans who
opposed immigration
B. Know-Nothing Party
A secret society formed in
 Wanted to keep immigrants
and Catholics from holding
political office
 Wanted a 21 year residency
requirement for citizenship
III. The Growth
of Cities in the
United States
A. Growth
Many new jobs created by the
industrial revolution
 Rural Americans drawn to
cities in search of employment
 Transportation Revolution
facilitated access to cities
B. Life in the City
Cities offered
entertainment and
cultural activities
 Cities were noisy and
IV. Urban
A. Rapid Growth led to
Overcrowded Cities
B. Living Conditions
Some people lived in dirty
overcrowded buildings
called tenements
 The overcrowding and filth
led to disease
 Cities became centers of