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• • • Jus Soli: by birth anywhere on land considered American soil. Jus Sanguinis: born on foreign soil but your parent is a U.S. citizen. Naturalization: process by which individuals who are not yet citizens become U.S. citizens. • • Act of Congress: can pass law naturalizing entire group ex. 1924 all Native Americans were made citizens. Treaty: acquire new territory and make the people citizens. Ex. 1803 Louisiana Purchase Area that is self-governing under a constitution of its adoption and whose right of self-government will not be unilaterally withdrawn by Congress. Part of the United States as a territory They are represented in Congress by a Resident Commissioner with a voice but without a vote. Residents of Puerto Rico generally do not pay federal income taxes Only required to file a U.S. federal income tax return if they have income sources outside of Puerto Rico. Can enter the U.S., work, travel freely and live without a visa. They cannot vote in Presidential elections. Application-18 yrs. of age, fingerprint, & background check. $680.00 fee Examination-INS office, basic knowledge of history and government, speak some English. Swearing In-Appear before a judge, take the oath of allegiance, receive a certificate. "I hereby declare, on oath, that I absolutely and entirely renounce and abjure all allegiance and fidelity to any foreign prince, potentate, state, or sovereignty, of whom or which I have heretofore been a subject or citizen; that I will support and defend the Constitution and laws of the United States of America against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; that I will bear arms on behalf of the United States when required by the law; that I will perform noncombatant service in the Armed Forces of the United States when required by the law; that I will perform work of national importance under civilian direction when required by the law; and that I take this obligation freely, without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion; so help me God." Expatriation: banish a person from their native country, renounce their citizenship, or become citizen of foreign country. Punishment for a crime: citizenship can be taken away for treason, inciting rebellion, or of conspiring to violently overthrow the government. Denaturalization: lose citizenship if the federal government learns that a naturalized citizen obtained his citizenship through fraudulent means. •No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States. •Do you agree with this provision? Immigrant: individuals who live in the U.S. with intention of becoming naturalized. Alien: individuals who live in the U.S. who may not intend to be citizens. Enemy Aliens: countries with whom we are at war, usually made to register. Ex. Germans-WWI Refugees: immigrants granted entry because their homeland is unsafe. Illegal Aliens: enter the U.S. without a legal permit. Xenophobia: unreasonable fear or hatred of foreigners Visa A card that gives you the right to enter the United States. Usually temporary set period of time, ex. business, school, tourism, etc. Green Card gives a permanent status to the foreigners to live and work in the United States. Usually 10 years. 1882 Immigration Act passed-move to curb Chinese immigration 1891 INS-Immigration and Naturalization Service (U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services) 1917 Literacy test introduced-xenophobia against Japanese 1921 Quota Act-attempt to restrict immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe 1948 Displaced Persons Act (Post WWII) 1952 McCarran-Walter Act-impose political views to keep out foreigners 1965 Limit immigrants from the Western Hemisphere to 120,000 1980 Refugee Act-help adapt to society, admit in emergency 1990 Curb illegal immigration, no longer limit for political views Caps on extraordinary ability individuals ex. Arts and sciences Caps on exceptional ability ex. Advanced degrees Caps on skilled workers Encourage family reunification 5,000 new border agents Use of wiretaps to halt document fraud and smuggling Penalties for smuggling to include punish for each alien rather than incident Deportation of legal immigrants if on federal assistance for 12 months $12 million for border fencing Do you think immigrants should have to speak English before they are admitted? Should children of illegal immigrants be entitled to benefits and government social services such as medical care and disaster relief? Drivers license? Why not just open ourselves to the world? Solve world’s problems before they reach us? Admit only the talent we need? Restrict all immigrants? Europe is being flooded by immigrants from Syria and other middle eastern countries ravaged by war and unrest. Germany has grudgingly agreed to take thousands of these refugees. How many potential terrorists are involved? Why don’t they flee to Muslim countries? Will they agree to become westernized? Should they? At what point should refugees be turned away?