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Chapter 18:
Cold War Conflicts
Section 2:
Origins of the Cold War
11.4.6, 11.8.5, & 11.9.3
11.4.6- Trace the declining role of Great Britain and the
expanding role of the United States in world affairs after
World War II.
11.8.5- Describe the increased powers of the presidency in
response to the Cold War.
11.9.3- Trace the origins and geopolitical consequences
(foreign and domestic) of the Cold War and containment
policy, including the following:
 The Truman Doctrine
 The Korean War
Following lecture and reading of this
section, students will be able to:
Explain how Communists came to power in
China and how the United States reacted.
Summarize the events of the Korean War.
Explain the conflict between President Truman
and General MacArthur.
Following WWII, tensions between the former allies
(US and USSR) arise again
Economic and Political differences
US- Democratic and Capitalist
USSR- Dictatorship and Communist
Military rule, no private ownership
The plans of each country for post WWII world were
very different
The US focus was on Containing Communism
Freedom of movement and ownership
Truman Doctrine & Marshall Plan
USSR focused on keeping Germany weak
The Cold War Heats Up
 After World War II
 China
became a communist nation
 Communists
defeated Nationalist (US friendly)
forces to take over the nation
 The
Communists were led by Mao Zedong
 The Nationalists were led by Chiang Kai-shek
 Korea
is split into two
 Communist
 Democratic south
Mao Zedong (C)
Chiang Kai-Shek (D)
China Becomes a Communist Country
 Nationalists Versus Communists
 Chinese
Communists battle nationalist
government of Chiang Kai-shek
 U.S. supports Chiang, but his government is
inefficient and corrupt
 Communists, led by Mao Zedong, work to get
peasant support
 Peasants flock to Red (Communist) Army
 By
1945, communists control north China
Renewed Civil War
 After WWII, the Japanese who had tried to
control China during WWII had been
 The
existing government (Nationalists) now
faced Communist opposition
 1944-47,
U.S. sends military aid to Nationalists to
oppose communist rebellion
 1949,
Nationalists flee to island of Taiwan
 Containment
 Communists
established People’s Republic of
China in mainland
America Reacts to Communist Takeover
 U.S. does not recognize Communist Chinese
 U.S. public stunned by Communist takeover
 Conservatives
blame Truman for not sending
enough aid
 Some begin to question Truman’s and other
democrat’s toughness on Communist expansion
The Korean War
 A Divided Country
 Since
1910 Japan had controlled Korea
 When
the Japanese had been defeated in WWII they
had to give up all land outside of Japan
 38th
parallel (38° N latitude) divides Japanese
surrender in Korea
 Japanese
troops north of 38th parallel surrendered
to U.S.S.R.
 Japanese troops south of 38th parallel surrendered
to U.S.
 North
and South Korea were formed
Surrender Sparks Differences
 The result of the surrender:
 U.S.S.R
and U.S. now have the ability to create
influence in the area in which soldiers
surrendered to them
 Since
Japanese rule is done there is no government
 Japanese
troops north of 38th parallel surrendered to
 Korea,
 Japanese
north of the 38th parallel becomes Communist
troops south of 38th parallel surrendered to
 Korea,
south of the 38th parallel becomes Democratic
The War Begins
 North Korea Attacked South Korea
 1950,
North Korea invaded South, began
Korean War
 South Korea called on UN to help stop invasion;
Security Council approves
 UN
assigned MacArthur to lead forces
against North Koreans
 500K
South Korean forces
 500K U.S. forces
The United States Fights in Korea
 MacArthur’s Counterattack
 North
Korea drove south, captured Seoul
 UN, South Korean troops forced into small
defensive zone
 Pusan
 MacArthur
attacked North Koreans from two
sides and pushed into North Korea
 Invasion
came behind North Korean advance
and forced many North Koreans to surrender
 Inchon
Battle of Inchon
The Chinese Enter the Fight
 The UN troops made a great recovery
 Gaining the upper hand, UN troops push passed
the 38th parallel and north very near the North
Korean-Chinese border
 North
Korea could have fallen
 China is Communist and does not want a
democratic nation on their border
 China
sent troops in to help North Korea
 Chinese
 Fighting
troops pushed south; recaptured Seoul
continued for 2 more years
McArthur and Truman Clash
 MacArthur Recommends Attacking China
 MacArthur
calls for war with China; Truman
rejects request
 Soviet
Union, China have mutual assistance pact
 Truman
knew that if we attacked China the U.S.S.R.
would attack the U.S.
 MacArthur
continues to push for invasion of
 Truman
 Public
eventually fired him
outraged over hero’s dismissal
 Congressional
investigation concluded Truman right
Settling for Stalemate
 UN, South Korea retake Seoul, advance
north, back to 38th parallel
 Once
back at the 38th parallel, the fight stalls
 1951,
Soviet Union suggests cease-fire
 1953 an armistice is signed
 Korea
still divided
 A demilitarized zone established between North and
South Korea
 Lack
of success, high human, financial costs
help elect Eisenhower
Ground Control Changes
in Korean War
June 1950
September 1950
North Koreans push UN and
South Korean forces to Pusan
Sept. – Oct. 1950
North Korea invades South
UN troops recapture 38th
parallel and move toward China
Nov. 1950 to Jan. 1951
Chinese intervention pushes
UN forces back to around 38th