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Analyze the impact of the Cold War on national
security and individual freedom, including the
containment policy and the role of military
alliances, the effects of the “Red Scare” and
McCarthyism, the conflicts in Korea and the
Middle East, the Iron Curtain and the Berlin Wall,
the Cuban missile crisis, and the nuclear arms
China and Korea
► China
after World War II was under a democratic
leader Chiang Kai-shek who was challenged by
Communist Rebels led by Mao Tse-Tung. The
United States sent support to Chiang and so the
Soviets sent help to Mao.
► Mao and the ***Communists eventually won the
mainland which became communist in 1949.
Chiang and his supporters fled to the island of
Formosa (Taiwan) and set up a democratic
► Red China or mainland China was clearly held by
The Korean War
Korea was one of the countries liberated from the Japanese during
World War II
***Since both the Soviets and United States had played a role in
freeing the country it was divided at the 38th parallel.
***North Korea was communist while South Korea was
capitalist and democratic.
***In June 1950, North Korean leaders tried to unite the
country and attacked across the 38th parallel.
***The North was quickly overrunning the south so the United
Nations and the United States decided to intervene
***The UN forces (mostly U.S.) quickly pushed the communist
forces back across the 38th parallel and continued to chase the
forces north.
***The Chinese then sent troops to help the North Koreans and
pushed the UN troops back south until a stalemate developed near
the 38th parallel. American public opinion turned against the war.
***After two more long years of fighting both sides signed a
truce in 1953, leaving the country divided at the same
point as before the war started.
***Victory for containment at the cost of 34,000 lives
► ***The United States still maintains a military presence along the
DMZ in Korea.
New Red Scare
These threats, both real and imagined, set the stage
for the Red Scare of the 1940-50’s
► The tough simplistic talk of the Truman administration
caused the public to see the tension between the US
and Soviet Union as good against evil.
► The anxiety caused by the fall of China, the Soviet
acquisition of the bomb, and the Korean War made
Americans look for the enemy within because surely
the Soviets could not have managed all this without
the help of American traitors.
► Although there were some spies who aided the
Soviets, the FBI uncovered none under Truman’s
Federal Loyalty Program.
► However, countless public servants had their
reputation smeared and the program laid the
groundwork for further false accusations.
Joseph McCarthy
► The
most interesting character to arise because of
the national concern about communism was
***Republican Senator Joseph McCarthy.
► ***McCarthy was certain communists had infiltrated
the U.S. government and military to high levels.
► McCarthy used the tactic of the “big lie”, repeating
an untrue accusation of affiliation with communism
loudly and often to smear countless diplomats,
artists and statesmen.
► His witch-hunt finally ended with Army-McCarthy
Hearings were he was forced to defend his ideas on
TV. Eventually, most people thought him paranoid
or downright crazy.
► ***McCarthyism began to collapse and the fear
the “communist were everywhere” began to
► In
1955, the Soviet Union organized the
Warsaw Pact, a military alliance of Eastern
European nations and the USSR against
► ***In 1957, the “Space Race” took off
when the USSR launched Sputnik.
► Congress than passed the ***National
Defense Education Act to promote
science and math skills and to
counteract the fear that consumerism
had made Americans less competitive.