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The Presidents of the United
How these
men made the
nation what it
is today!
The events and
decisions that
ruled the
country for its
first 100 years!
A Look at the History of the
United States from George
Washington to Abraham Lincoln
At the end of Washington’s
Presidency, he had…
Taken over Choctaw &
Chickasaw Lands
Kept the Presidency a Position of
Respect AND at Citizen Level!
Allowed Hamilton to Take
Charge of Economy and Signed
1st Bank of America Charter
Warned us against political parties,
but then….
Election of 1796
• Adams, Pinckney, and
the Federalists
• Bitter campaign
blaming AntiFederalists for
violence of French
• Adams wins 71
electoral votes and
becomes President
• Jefferson, Burr, and the
• Complained that Adams
was too aristocratic and
favorable to Great Britain
• Jefferson wins 68
electoral votes and
becomes Vice President
The result
• The loss of a friendship that isn’t healed
until 20 years later
• Jefferson spends entire 4 years of Adams
presidency at his plantation Monticello in
• The creation of the Democratic-Republican
party led by Jefferson, Madison
John Adams
• Today we will judge the presidency of John
Adams using sentence stems.
• As historians we will assess Adams’
presidency – which is difficult to do
• We will examine the XYZ Affair, Alien &
Sedition Acts, and Virginia & Kentucky
John Adams 1797-1801
Married to Abigail; father of
John Quincy; cousin of Sam.
Honest, wise, and right in
decision-making; not so
popular, seen as vain
• XYZ Affair
• Alien & Sedition Acts
• Virginia & Kentucky
• *Midnight Judges –
John Marshall
• 1 Term Only President
• White House Resident
to live in White House
XYZ Affair 1797-98
• Jay Treaty (1794) – averted war with Great
Britain and promoted peaceful trade
• U.S. relationship with France strained; France
upset and leaders ordered the allowing for the
seizure of American merchant ships
• Adams avoided war though many were in
• US send diplomats to France to settle some problems
happening between France and the US, like the
“impressment” of American sailors.
• French Foreign Minister demands a bribe and money
before meeting with Americans.
• Democratic Republicans upset that commission had
failed demanded release of the communications from
the diplomats.
• Adams replaced French names with XYZ and released
• Federalists demanded war; DR’s embarassed
• Congress builds US Navy as result
Sentence Stem
• The U.S. should have (gone / not gone) to
war with France because _______________
Alien and Sedition Acts (1798)
• Federalists aligned with Britain; DemocraticRepublicans aligned with France (French
Revolution big event in Europe) – supported France
and some wanted a similar revolution
• National security – allowed the president to
imprison or deport aliens who were considered
"dangerous to the peace and safety of the United
• Restricted free speech
• Intended to decrease the number of voters who
disagreed with the Federalist party
Alien & Sedition Acts
A Reaction to the XYZ Affair
• 1. Naturalization Act: aliens have to be residents 14 years
instead of 5
• 2. Alien Act – foreigners deemed “dangerous to peace and
safety of the U.S.” could be deported – even during
• 3. Alien Enemies Act – wartime arrest, imprisonment, and/or
• 4. Sedition Act – any “false, scandalous, and malicious
writing” was cause for fine and/or imprisonment.
Sentence Stem
• The Alien & Sedition Acts were
(constitutional / unconstitutional) because
Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions
• Written secretly by Thomas Jefferson and
James Madison
• Called the Alien & Sedition Acts
unconstitutional and gave their states the
right to “nullify” any law passed by
Congress that went against the
• Becomes a “precedent” for states later.
Sentence Stem
• The states have (the right / no rights) to
declare acts of Congress unconstitutional
The election of 1800
• 2 Party System well in place: Federalists versus
the Democratic Republicans
• 1st electoral vote ends in a tie between 2
Democratic Republicans: Jefferson and Burr
• Hamilton campaigns hard for Jefferson and creates
enemy of Burr
• Jefferson wins
• Adams doesn’t even stay for inaugural – so upset.
• 12th Amendment begins its process. Electors have
to cast separate ballots for President & Vice
But before he leaves office…
• He signs the Judiciary Act of 1801.
• He appoints John Marshall as the Chief
Justice of the Supreme Court
• And issues 42 commissions for Federalists
to fill the positions of U.S. federal judges…
• The story continues with President Jefferson
• 3rd oldest living President dying on the 4th
of July, 1826 just minutes after Jefferson
while his son John Quincy was President.
• Wanted to be remembered for keeping us
out of war with France; something he
achieved at great personal cost.
Exit Ticket
• Directions: Using the information from
today state and explain the legacy of John
Adams’ presidency.
• John Adams had a (successful /
unsuccessful) presidency because