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The Presidents of the United States How these men made the nation what it is today! The events and decisions that ruled the country for its first 100 years! A Look at the History of the United States from George Washington to Abraham Lincoln At the end of Washington’s Presidency, he had… Taken over Choctaw & Chickasaw Lands Kept the Presidency a Position of Respect AND at Citizen Level! Allowed Hamilton to Take Charge of Economy and Signed 1st Bank of America Charter Warned us against political parties, but then…. Election of 1796 • Adams, Pinckney, and the Federalists • Bitter campaign blaming AntiFederalists for violence of French Revolution • Adams wins 71 electoral votes and becomes President • Jefferson, Burr, and the Anti-Federalists • Complained that Adams was too aristocratic and favorable to Great Britain • Jefferson wins 68 electoral votes and becomes Vice President The result • The loss of a friendship that isn’t healed until 20 years later • Jefferson spends entire 4 years of Adams presidency at his plantation Monticello in Virginia • The creation of the Democratic-Republican party led by Jefferson, Madison John Adams • Today we will judge the presidency of John Adams using sentence stems. • As historians we will assess Adams’ presidency – which is difficult to do • We will examine the XYZ Affair, Alien & Sedition Acts, and Virginia & Kentucky Resolution John Adams 1797-1801 Married to Abigail; father of John Quincy; cousin of Sam. Honest, wise, and right in decision-making; not so popular, seen as vain • XYZ Affair • Alien & Sedition Acts • Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions. • *Midnight Judges – John Marshall • 1 Term Only President • White House Resident st 1 to live in White House XYZ Affair 1797-98 • Jay Treaty (1794) – averted war with Great Britain and promoted peaceful trade • U.S. relationship with France strained; France upset and leaders ordered the allowing for the seizure of American merchant ships • Adams avoided war though many were in favor XYZ AFFAIR • US send diplomats to France to settle some problems happening between France and the US, like the “impressment” of American sailors. • French Foreign Minister demands a bribe and money before meeting with Americans. • Democratic Republicans upset that commission had failed demanded release of the communications from the diplomats. • Adams replaced French names with XYZ and released them. • Federalists demanded war; DR’s embarassed • Congress builds US Navy as result Sentence Stem • The U.S. should have (gone / not gone) to war with France because _______________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ _______________________ Alien and Sedition Acts (1798) • Federalists aligned with Britain; DemocraticRepublicans aligned with France (French Revolution big event in Europe) – supported France and some wanted a similar revolution • National security – allowed the president to imprison or deport aliens who were considered "dangerous to the peace and safety of the United States“ • Restricted free speech • Intended to decrease the number of voters who disagreed with the Federalist party Alien & Sedition Acts A Reaction to the XYZ Affair • 1. Naturalization Act: aliens have to be residents 14 years instead of 5 • 2. Alien Act – foreigners deemed “dangerous to peace and safety of the U.S.” could be deported – even during peacetime • 3. Alien Enemies Act – wartime arrest, imprisonment, and/or deportation • 4. Sedition Act – any “false, scandalous, and malicious writing” was cause for fine and/or imprisonment. Sentence Stem • The Alien & Sedition Acts were (constitutional / unconstitutional) because ___________________________________ ___________________________________ __________________________. Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions • Written secretly by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison • Called the Alien & Sedition Acts unconstitutional and gave their states the right to “nullify” any law passed by Congress that went against the Constitution… • Becomes a “precedent” for states later. Sentence Stem • The states have (the right / no rights) to declare acts of Congress unconstitutional because_____________________________ ___________________________________ ________________________. The election of 1800 • 2 Party System well in place: Federalists versus the Democratic Republicans • 1st electoral vote ends in a tie between 2 Democratic Republicans: Jefferson and Burr • Hamilton campaigns hard for Jefferson and creates enemy of Burr • Jefferson wins • Adams doesn’t even stay for inaugural – so upset. • 12th Amendment begins its process. Electors have to cast separate ballots for President & Vice President But before he leaves office… • He signs the Judiciary Act of 1801. • He appoints John Marshall as the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court • And issues 42 commissions for Federalists to fill the positions of U.S. federal judges… • The story continues with President Jefferson Legacy • 3rd oldest living President dying on the 4th of July, 1826 just minutes after Jefferson while his son John Quincy was President. • Wanted to be remembered for keeping us out of war with France; something he achieved at great personal cost. Exit Ticket • Directions: Using the information from today state and explain the legacy of John Adams’ presidency. • John Adams had a (successful / unsuccessful) presidency because ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ____________.