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Transcript
Take up the White Man’s burden
Send forth the best ye breed
Go bind your sons to exile
To serve your captives’ need;
To wait in heavy harness
On fluttered folk and wild
Your new-caught, sullen people
Half devil and half Child
-Rudyard Kipling
1899
Reasons for US. Imperialism
1. Industrialization and increase in
production.
2. Need for raw materials.
3. Need for new markets.
4. Need to protect shipping lanes
and military interest.
5. Racial Superiority of AngloSaxons.
Seward's Folly
Why Wanted.
 Eliminate Foreign interests
in North America.
 Possible resources.
 Agreement on March 30, 1867, Payment
concluded on August 1, 1868.
 About 365,000,000 acres for 7.2 million
dollars, or in layman’s terms the United
States paid the equivalent of 2 cents per
acre for all that wonderful frozen tundra.
 Original agreement to set up a
naval refueling station in Hawaii.
 Original government was a Monarchy
(Queen Lili'uokalani).
 Emigrants from the US set up Sugar
and Pineapple Plantations (Dole).
 Creates planter class which seeks
annexation by the US (remember
Texas).
Imperialism and
the Far East
 Europeans need raw materials
from China and markets for their
goods…China refuses trade.
 Opium trade and conflict.
 British armies respond…victory
leads to Chinese concessions.
Carving up
China
 European
powers divide
up China:
England
Germany
Russia
France
Japan
Spheres of Influence
 Areas where nations have
special trading privileges and
where a number of its nationals
live.
Kemerovo
Novosibirsk
RUSSIA
Pavlodar
Lake
Baikal
Irkutsk
lk a
Sh i
Ulan-Ude
Ekibastuz
Ulaangom
Ertis
Darhan
AZAKHSTAN
Karamay
Shihezi
KYRG.
Aksu
a
Kashi T
Erdene
Bei'an
Ürümqi
Qiqihar
ULAANBAATAR
MONGOLIA
Baicheng
Mandalgovi
Manlay
Nomgon
CHINA
Shizuishan
Xining
Liupanshui
Jixi
(PEKING)
Baoding
Shijiazhuang
Jinan
Xinxiang
P'YONGYANG
Zibo
Qingdao
Yellow
Sea
Xuzhou
Nanjing
Mianyang
e Shanghai
Jingmen
Wuhan gtz
Zhongba
Lhasa
Chengdu
Hangzhou
EW
an
Y
Zigong
LHI
East
Chongqing
Wenzhou
NEPAL
China
Changsha
tr a Xichang
Shaoyang
BHU
u
KATHMANDU
p
Sea
a
Hengyang
Guiyang
hm
Kanpur
a
Guilin
r
T'AI-PEI
B
Ga ng e s
Kunming
BANG
Liuzhou
Guangzhou
Gejiu Nanning
TAIWAN
Indore
Calcutta
DHAKA
H.K.
MYANMAR
VIETNAM
MACAU
Nagpur
Zhanjiang
Taung-gyi
LAOS
South China Sea
Bay of
une
Bengal
Hainan Dao
THAILAND
Hanzhong
INDIA
Xi'an
Hegang
Benxi
BEIJING
Baotou
Wuhai
Harbin
Changchun
Liaoyuan
Chifeng
Hami
Korla
rim
K.
Blagoveshchensk
Yakeshi
Sele ng e
Uliastay
Lake
Zeyskoye
A mu r
NORTH
KOREA
Sea of
Japan
SEOUL
SOUTH
KOREA
JAPAN
Ryukyu
Islands
PACIFIC
OCEAN
7 20 km
4 50 m i
Open Door Policy—Secretary of
State John Hay proposed a policy
that would give all nations equal
trading rights in China. Urged all
foreigners in China to obey Chinese
law, observe fair competition the
Open Door Policy allows other
nations to trade freely without fear
of war.
THE OPENING OF JAPAN
 Matthew Perry and Americans
open trade with Japan in 1853.
 Following Perry’s ultimatum,
Japan industrializes itself.
 Treaty of Kanagawa
 Open ports
 Extra-territoriality
for American citizens.
Spanish-American War, 1898
 Revolution in Cuba
 Jose Marti
“Remember the Maine”
Yellow Journalism
 War in Cuba
 Americans and Cubans fight to
liberate Cuba.
 Four months of fighting and 5,000
American lives brings victory.
 United States takes control of all
Spanish possessions, (Puerto Rico,
Guam, Philippines, Cuba…sort of)
 U.S. pays Spain 20 million dollars.
 U.S. holds the Philippines.
Granted independence on July
4, 1946. 60,000 marines need
to take control…American
Imperialism
 Election of 1900…McKinley
killed…Theodore Roosevelt
becomes President
Platt Amendment
1. Cuba was not to make treaties that
would limit their independence.
2. Not to permit any foreign power to
control territory.
3. US had right to intervene “protect life,
property and individual liberty.”
4. Not to go into debt to foreign nations.
5. US. Could buy or lease land for a naval
base
Alfred Thayer Mahan
Items necessary for the United States to
acquire to become a world power.
 Bases in the Caribbean
 Bases for fleets to
refuel in the Pacific
 Modern Fleet
 Panama Canal
The Panama Canal
 Why Panama?
Trouble:
Columbia turns down Hay-Herran Treaty
 US has new government in power.
 Facing possible revolt by Panamanians
Panama Revolts against Colombia
 US helps set off revolt (this doesn’t happen
anymore does it?)
Hay-Bunau Verilla treaty signed
 US gets canal zone forever
 US gives Panama 10 million lump sum and 250K
annually for 9 years.
 Guarantees Panamanian independence.
The Panama
Canal (Cont)
Construction Obstacles:
 Setbacks by disease
 Malaria and Yellow Fever
 Sanitation and treatment
(Walter Reed)
 Costs ran high (overruns)
 More firepower for blasting than all previous wars
combined.
U.S. Possessions
Panama Canal
Panama Canal
Roosevelt and “The Big Stick”
 Roosevelt Corollary In the early 1900s
Roosevelt grew concerned that a crisis between Venezuela and
its creditors could spark an invasion of that nation by European
powers. The Roosevelt Corollary of December 1904 stated that
the United States would intervene as a last resort to ensure that
other nations in the Western Hemisphere fulfilled their
obligations to international creditors, and did not violate the
rights of the United States or invite "foreign aggression to the
detriment of the entire body of American nations." As the
corollary worked out in practice, the United States increasingly
used military force to restore internal stability to nations in the
region. Roosevelt declared that the United States might
"exercise international police power in 'flagrant cases of such
wrongdoing or impotence.'" Over the long term the corollary
had little to do with relations between the Western Hemisphere
and Europe, but it did serve as justification for U.S. intervention
in Cuba, Nicaragua, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic
 Russo-Japanese War 1905
Treaty of Portsmouth
TR gets Nobel Peace prize for
mediating peace.
 American is becoming a
world power
Dollar Diplomacy
 William Howard Taft. (Roosevelt's
successor)
 Encouraged US business investment in
Latin America and China to discourage
other foreign investment. President Taft
urged American banks and businesses to
invest in Latin America. He promised that
the United States would step in if unrest
threatened their investments
 Result: US investment in Latin American
dominates the economy of many Latin
American nations.