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Take up the White Man’s burden Send forth the best ye breed Go bind your sons to exile To serve your captives’ need; To wait in heavy harness On fluttered folk and wild Your new-caught, sullen people Half devil and half Child -Rudyard Kipling 1899 Reasons for US. Imperialism 1. Industrialization and increase in production. 2. Need for raw materials. 3. Need for new markets. 4. Need to protect shipping lanes and military interest. 5. Racial Superiority of AngloSaxons. Seward's Folly Why Wanted. Eliminate Foreign interests in North America. Possible resources. Agreement on March 30, 1867, Payment concluded on August 1, 1868. About 365,000,000 acres for 7.2 million dollars, or in layman’s terms the United States paid the equivalent of 2 cents per acre for all that wonderful frozen tundra. Original agreement to set up a naval refueling station in Hawaii. Original government was a Monarchy (Queen Lili'uokalani). Emigrants from the US set up Sugar and Pineapple Plantations (Dole). Creates planter class which seeks annexation by the US (remember Texas). Imperialism and the Far East Europeans need raw materials from China and markets for their goods…China refuses trade. Opium trade and conflict. British armies respond…victory leads to Chinese concessions. Carving up China European powers divide up China: England Germany Russia France Japan Spheres of Influence Areas where nations have special trading privileges and where a number of its nationals live. Kemerovo Novosibirsk RUSSIA Pavlodar Lake Baikal Irkutsk lk a Sh i Ulan-Ude Ekibastuz Ulaangom Ertis Darhan AZAKHSTAN Karamay Shihezi KYRG. Aksu a Kashi T Erdene Bei'an Ürümqi Qiqihar ULAANBAATAR MONGOLIA Baicheng Mandalgovi Manlay Nomgon CHINA Shizuishan Xining Liupanshui Jixi (PEKING) Baoding Shijiazhuang Jinan Xinxiang P'YONGYANG Zibo Qingdao Yellow Sea Xuzhou Nanjing Mianyang e Shanghai Jingmen Wuhan gtz Zhongba Lhasa Chengdu Hangzhou EW an Y Zigong LHI East Chongqing Wenzhou NEPAL China Changsha tr a Xichang Shaoyang BHU u KATHMANDU p Sea a Hengyang Guiyang hm Kanpur a Guilin r T'AI-PEI B Ga ng e s Kunming BANG Liuzhou Guangzhou Gejiu Nanning TAIWAN Indore Calcutta DHAKA H.K. MYANMAR VIETNAM MACAU Nagpur Zhanjiang Taung-gyi LAOS South China Sea Bay of une Bengal Hainan Dao THAILAND Hanzhong INDIA Xi'an Hegang Benxi BEIJING Baotou Wuhai Harbin Changchun Liaoyuan Chifeng Hami Korla rim K. Blagoveshchensk Yakeshi Sele ng e Uliastay Lake Zeyskoye A mu r NORTH KOREA Sea of Japan SEOUL SOUTH KOREA JAPAN Ryukyu Islands PACIFIC OCEAN 7 20 km 4 50 m i Open Door Policy—Secretary of State John Hay proposed a policy that would give all nations equal trading rights in China. Urged all foreigners in China to obey Chinese law, observe fair competition the Open Door Policy allows other nations to trade freely without fear of war. THE OPENING OF JAPAN Matthew Perry and Americans open trade with Japan in 1853. Following Perry’s ultimatum, Japan industrializes itself. Treaty of Kanagawa Open ports Extra-territoriality for American citizens. Spanish-American War, 1898 Revolution in Cuba Jose Marti “Remember the Maine” Yellow Journalism War in Cuba Americans and Cubans fight to liberate Cuba. Four months of fighting and 5,000 American lives brings victory. United States takes control of all Spanish possessions, (Puerto Rico, Guam, Philippines, Cuba…sort of) U.S. pays Spain 20 million dollars. U.S. holds the Philippines. Granted independence on July 4, 1946. 60,000 marines need to take control…American Imperialism Election of 1900…McKinley killed…Theodore Roosevelt becomes President Platt Amendment 1. Cuba was not to make treaties that would limit their independence. 2. Not to permit any foreign power to control territory. 3. US had right to intervene “protect life, property and individual liberty.” 4. Not to go into debt to foreign nations. 5. US. Could buy or lease land for a naval base Alfred Thayer Mahan Items necessary for the United States to acquire to become a world power. Bases in the Caribbean Bases for fleets to refuel in the Pacific Modern Fleet Panama Canal The Panama Canal Why Panama? Trouble: Columbia turns down Hay-Herran Treaty US has new government in power. Facing possible revolt by Panamanians Panama Revolts against Colombia US helps set off revolt (this doesn’t happen anymore does it?) Hay-Bunau Verilla treaty signed US gets canal zone forever US gives Panama 10 million lump sum and 250K annually for 9 years. Guarantees Panamanian independence. The Panama Canal (Cont) Construction Obstacles: Setbacks by disease Malaria and Yellow Fever Sanitation and treatment (Walter Reed) Costs ran high (overruns) More firepower for blasting than all previous wars combined. U.S. Possessions Panama Canal Panama Canal Roosevelt and “The Big Stick” Roosevelt Corollary In the early 1900s Roosevelt grew concerned that a crisis between Venezuela and its creditors could spark an invasion of that nation by European powers. The Roosevelt Corollary of December 1904 stated that the United States would intervene as a last resort to ensure that other nations in the Western Hemisphere fulfilled their obligations to international creditors, and did not violate the rights of the United States or invite "foreign aggression to the detriment of the entire body of American nations." As the corollary worked out in practice, the United States increasingly used military force to restore internal stability to nations in the region. Roosevelt declared that the United States might "exercise international police power in 'flagrant cases of such wrongdoing or impotence.'" Over the long term the corollary had little to do with relations between the Western Hemisphere and Europe, but it did serve as justification for U.S. intervention in Cuba, Nicaragua, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic Russo-Japanese War 1905 Treaty of Portsmouth TR gets Nobel Peace prize for mediating peace. American is becoming a world power Dollar Diplomacy William Howard Taft. (Roosevelt's successor) Encouraged US business investment in Latin America and China to discourage other foreign investment. President Taft urged American banks and businesses to invest in Latin America. He promised that the United States would step in if unrest threatened their investments Result: US investment in Latin American dominates the economy of many Latin American nations.