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The Spanish-American
War 1898
“The Splendid Little War”—John Hay
 Naval officer Alfred T. Mahan publishes The Influence of Sea
Power upon History, 1660-1783,” to show that sea power was
the key to a nation’s greatness.
 Mahan’s views influence T. Roosevelt and others who believe
the U.S. must lead in the Western Hemisphere and will need a
big navy to do so.
 Frederick Jackson Turner declares the
American frontier closed based on the 1890
 The 1893 depression crippled the U. S.
economy prompting American businesses to
look abroad for foreign markets.
 The latest Cuban revolt against Spanish rule
This photograph was taken in Cuba in 1896 at the occasion of the surrender of
José Loreto, one of the Chiefs of Cuban Rebel leaders in the Province of Santa
Clara. The surrender took place in a Spanish military camp at Las Cendrillas.
 Spanish General Weyler (the “Butcher”) comes to Cuba. He soon
begins rounding up Cubans and putting thousands in concentration
camps. He is recalled by Spain in 1897.
 In August, a revolution against Spanish rule begins in the Philippines.
 The U.S.S. Maine is sent to Cuba.
 A few days later, the Maine explodes in Havana Harbor.
Yellow Journalism
William R.
Hearst sent
artist Frederic
Remington to
illustrate news
stories of the
SpanishAmerican War.
The controversial De Lôme Letter (1898).
The Spanish diplomat's letter was critical of U.S. President McKinley
and the prospects for peace. It was leaked to the U.S. press.
 This letter, written by the Spanish
Ambassador to the United States,
Enrique Dupuy de Lôme, criticized
American President William
McKinley by calling him weak and
concerned only with gaining the
favor of the crowd. Publication of
the letter helped generate public
support for a war with Spain over
the issue of independence for the
Spanish colony of Cuba.
 Assistant Secretary of the Navy T. Roosevelt
cables Commodore Dewey, telling him to attack
the Philippines if war with Spain breaks out.
Flying the signal "Follow the flag", Commodore Schley's flagship, the USS Brooklyn, leads the pack in a
hard-hitting assault on the stampeding Spaniards. Texas, Iowa and Oregon are right behind, their starboard
guns blazing. Caught in a steel trap, the Spanish fought with courage born of desperation. Painting from the
Franklin D. Roosevelt Library.
1898 War against Spain
 “I now recommend the adoption of a joint resolution declaring that a state
of war exists between the United States of America and the Kingdom of
 "for the recognition of the independence of the people of Cuba, demanding
that the Government of Spain relinquish its authority”
A war on two fronts
Lt. Col. Theodore Roosevelt
This 1898 lithograph portrays a highly romantic version of the Battle of San Juan Hill. The
famous charge was much less glamorous than pictured here. Theodore Roosevelt, whose
Rough Riders had taken nearby Kettle Hill, called to his men to charge the next line of
Spanish trenches in the San Juan hills. But in the excitement of the battle, they didn't hear
him and Roosevelt found himself charging virtually alone. He had to go back and rally the
Rough Riders, who then charged the hill on foot.
Armistice: August 1898
American Anti-Imperialist League
 The American Anti-Imperialist
League was an organization
established in the U. S. on June
15, 1898, to battle
the annexation of
the Philippines as an insular
area. The anti-imperialists
opposed the expansion
because they believed
imperialism violated the credo
of republicanism, especially the
need for "consent of the
 Jane Addams
 Andrew Carnegie
 John Dewey
 William G. Sumner
 Samuel Gompers
 Grover Cleveland
According to Treaty of Paris, Spain:
 Gave up all rights to Cuba
 Surrendered Puerto Rico and gave up its possessions in
the West Indies
 Surrendered the island of Guam to the United States
 Surrendered the Philippines to the United States for a
payment of $20,000,000.
Philippine-American War: 1899-1902
 Emilio Aguinaldo led a
fight against U.S.
troops when McKinley
decides against
independence for the
Lasting influence
 Major step away from isolationism
 First war beyond US borders since 1848
 Empire of colonies/territories in Caribbean &
 Leads to the Roosevelt Corollary
 Great White Fleet
 Open Door Policy in China
 14 Points & leadership in WWI