* Your assessment is very important for improving the workof artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project
Download US IMPERIALISM POWERPOINT
Document related concepts
Imperialism The practice of building or extending an empire. - a policy of extending ECONOMIC, POLITICAL OR MILITARY control over a weaker territory. - any instance of aggressive extension of authority (PRO) WHAT DO THEY GAIN? WHAT RISKS DO THEY RUN? Do the pros outweigh the cons? WHAT DO THEY GAIN? (PRO) THEY RUN? (CON) WHAT RISKS DO DO THE PROS OUTWEIGH THE CONS????????? 1. MONEY-Commercial/Business Interests-Natural Resources 2.5 Billion U. S. Foreign Investments: 1869-1908 2. POWER-Military/Strategic Interests “to be strong in the modern world, US products must be sold. To secure these markets, a strong navy is needed”. Capt. Alfred T. Mahan 3. Spread Culture-Social Darwinist Thinking The Hierarchy of Race The White Man’s Burden 4. Religious/Missionary Interests 5. Land-Expansion of the U.S. Commodore Matthew Perry Opens Up Japan: 1853 Commodore Perry Treaty of Kanagawa: 1854 Two Japanese ports are opened to American products Hawaiian Queen Liliuokalani-1891 Hawaii for the Hawaiians! U. S. View of Hawaiians U. S. Business Interests In Hawaii 1893 – American businessmen & US Marines lead an uprising against Queen Liliuokalani. Sanford Ballard Dole - provisional president of the Republic of Hawaii in 1894. Hawaiian Annexation Ceremony, 1898-Pres. McKinley-US Territory Spanish Misrule in Cuba Jose Marti leads the rebels US Sugar Plantations set ablaze by Cuban Rebels Valeriano Weyler’s “Reconcentration” Policy in Cuba Will America Help? De Lôme Letter Enrique Dupuy de Lôme, Spanish Ambassador to the U.S. Letter uncovered Feb. 1898. Criticized President McKinley as “weak” "THE WORST INSULT TO THE UNITED STATES IN ITS HISTORY". NY Journal Americans were insulted ………………… President McKinley sends the Maine to Cuba Explosion of the U.S.S. Maine, Havana Harbor, February 15, 1898 The USS Maine The USS MAINE Feb. 15, 1898 The USS Maine Arlington National Cemetery 266 US Soldiers are buried. Reporting the NEWS-Headlines • Newspaper A ---“Search for Missing Bride Continues” • Newspaper B--- “Bride Missing! Groom’s Family Blames History of Mental Illness” “Yellow Journalism” & Jingoism Joseph Pulitzer William Randolph Hearst Hearst to Frederick Remington: “You furnish the pictures, and I’ll furnish the war!” “Remember the Maine and to Hell with Spain!” WHAT SUNK THE MAINE ????? WHY DID THE US INVADE CUBA? • List possible hypotheses in your notebook. • Use your ppt. notes for ideas. • President William McKinley, on 11 April 1898, asked the Congress • “... to authorize and empower the President to take measures to secure a full and final termination of hostilities between the government of Spain and the people of Cuba, and to ensure in the island the establishment of a stable government, capable of maintaining order and observing its international obligations, insuring peace and tranquility and the security of its citizens as well as our own, and to use the military and naval forces of the United States as may be necessary for these purposes.” Theodore Roosevelt Assistant Secretary of the Navy during the McKinley administration. Imperialist & nationalist. TR sent Commodore Dewey to the Philippines-May 1898 Resigned from his Naval position to serve in the calvary in Cuba. The Teller Amendment US Congressional condition to intervention in Cuba April 20, 1898 • The US could not annex Cuba. The US is to leave: "control of the island to its people.” Why did the United States invade Cuba? • http://historicalthinkingmatters.org/spanish americanwar/ “Awake United States!” • This song was rushed into print between the sinking of the Maine on February 15, 1898, and the declaration of war on April 25, 1898 . Eagle soar on high, and sound the battle cry! And how proudly sailed the warship Maine, a Nation’s pride, without a stain! A wreck she lies, her sailors slain. By two-faced butchers, paid by Spain! Eagle soar on high, And sound the battle cry Wave the starry flag! In mud it shall not drag! Humanitarian Efforts W.M. The Spanish-American War (1898): “That Splendid Little War” Dewey Captures Manila! TR Joined: The “Rough Riders” The Spanish-American War (1898): “That Splendid Little War” CUBA The Rough Riders captured Kettle and San Juan Hills-US Naval forces sunk the entire Spanish Fleet in Cuba. The Treaty of Paris: 1898 Cuba was freed from Spanish rule. Spain gave Puerto Rico and Guam to the United States. The U.S. paid Spain $20 million for the Philippines. The U. S. became an imperial power! Should the United States Pursue a Foreign Policy of Isolationism or Interventionism? Create t-Chart Imperialism Anti-Imperialism The American Anti-Imperialist League Founded in 1898. Writers, social reformers, some businessmen & racists. Edward Atkinson, William Jennings Bryan, Mark Twain, Andrew Carnegie, Jane Addams, Rev.Ames. Campaigned against the annexation of the Philippines and other acts of imperialism. "Now, children, you've got to learn these lessons whether you want to or not!..." The blackboard in the background reads "The consent of the governed is a good thing in theory, but very rare in fact....England has governed her colonies whether they consented or not. By not waiting for their consent she has greatly advanced the world's civilization....The U.S. must govern its new territories with or without the consent of the governed until they can govern themselves." Is He To Be a Despot? Puerto Rico 1900 - Foraker Act. Denied Puerto Ricans US citizenship Established a government in PR US President would appoint a governor & representatives 1917 – Jones Act-Puerto Rico= US Territory Puerto Ricans are granted US citizenship-w/o US voting rights Puerto Rico No tariff duties on PR goods coming into the US PR’s elect their own legislators & governor to enforce local laws-their gov. or the US President could veto laws (1993 voted no for statehood). GUAM-US Territory=U.S. Citizens (non-voting) Cuban Independence? Platt Amendment-to the Cuban Constitution (1903) 1. Cuba was not to enter into any agreements with foreign powers that would endanger its independence. 2. The U.S. could intervene in Cuban affairs 3. Cuba would lease Guantanamo Bay to the U.S. for a naval base and coaling station. Emilio Aguinaldo Leader of the Filipino uprising against U.S. occupation. Three years brutal of war. • Feb. 4, 1899-US & Filipino forces begin a 3 1/2 year war (400,000-600,000 / 4,000). • Feb 6, 1899-US voted to annex the islands • March 23, 1901-General Emilio Aguinaldo is captured/US Education Programs begin – Sedition Act Passed William H. Taft, 1st Gov.-General of the Philippines The Great administrator. Filipino sneak attack on US killed 59 wounded 46 Our “Sphere of Influence” – By 1916: US agreed to grant independence “as soon as conditions are appropriate” – Dec. 8, 1941—Japan Invaded the Philippines forcing U.S. action – 1946: Independence Granted The Open Door Policy Sec of State John Hay. “Open Door Policy” Give all nations equal access to trade in China. Guaranteed that China would NOT be taken over by any one foreign power. The Open Door Policy The Boxer Rebellion: 1900 The Righteous Order of Harmonious Fists-rebellion against foreigners. “55 Days at Peking.” 230 Foreigners killed/30,000 Chinese Catholic converts killed. Multi-national defense -1901 America as a Pacific Power BIG STICK DIPLOMACY Speak Softly, and Carry a Big Stick! --TR Treaty of Portsmouth: 1905 Nobel Peace Prize for Teddy The Treaty of Portsmouth1905 * Ended the Russo-Japanese War and Russian “interference” in the Japanese interests in Manchuria and Korea. * Japan received the right to annex Korea and expand interests in Manchuria. Root-Takahira Agreement 1908 * US & Japan recognize each other’s colonial claims. *Japan agreed not to meddle in the affairs of US colonies. * The “Great White Fleet” of 16 brand new battleships was sent to impress Japan. (EXPLAIN). The Great White Fleet: 1907 Failed negotiations with Columbia led to an orchestrated Panamanian rebellion of their Columbian rulers. Panama: The King’s Crown Dr. Walter Reed & Dr. William Gorgas -conquer yellow fever. 4,500 of 45,000 died from disease or accidents Construction began in 1904, ended 1914 Cost= $400 million Panama Canal TR in Panama US exclusive until 1999 The Roosevelt Corollary to the 1823 Monroe Doctrine: 1905 “Chronic wrongdoing… may in America, as elsewhere, ultimately require intervention by some civilized nation, and in the Western Hemisphere the adherence of the United States to the Monroe Doctrine may force the United States, however reluctantly, in flagrant cases of such wrongdoing or impotence, to the exercise of an international police power” The US would police the continent. U. S. Global Investments & Investments in Latin America, 1914 Constable of the World Taft’s “Dollar Diplomacy”19091913 US businessmen should invest in underdeveloped nations, rather than lending US dollars. The U.S. Gov’t should create stability and order abroad that would best promote America’s commercial interests. Wilson’s “Moral Diplomacy”Missionary Diplomacy 19131921 The U. S. should be the conscience of the world. Deny recognition to any Latin American gov’t that is oppressive, undemocratic or hostile to US interests. Spread democracy. Promote peace. Condemn colonialism. WHAT FOREIGN POLICY GOALS DID THE U.S ACHIEVE AS A Result of Imperialism? • • • • • • • Gains: $ & POWER NEW LAND & Natural Resources Access to overseas markets for US goods. A Modern Navy-International Police Power Dominance in Latin America AT WHAT COST !!!!