Download Modernization of Japan

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Nanban trade wikipedia, lookup

Statism in Shōwa Japan wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
MODERNIZATION
OF JAPAN
Objective: Explain the global
impact of Imperialism
including: Modernization of
Japan
GLOBAL IMPACT OF IMPERIALISM
Western powers also radically altered countries that they
never officially colonized.
Two of these are Japan and China.
Those countries that they did colonize are still badly
damaged by the experience.
In Africa today, people still feel the effects of the 19 th
century imperialism.
Although former colonies have been freed, many
inhabitants cannot shake off the sense of inferiority and
anger that colonial rulers imposed on them.
Hollywood
Vs.
Real Life
MODERNIZATION OF
JAPAN
The Japanese have a reputation for adopting other cultures and
turning them to advantage.
If so, this may explain why contact with the West strengthened
that country in some important ways.
JAPAN’S FEUDAL SOCIETY
In the 1600s, Japan had cut itself off from most of the
world.
From about 1185 through the mid-1800s, Japan was
organized into a feudal society, much like those in
medieval Europe.
A feudal society is one in which local lords govern their
own lands, but owe loyalty and military services to a
higher lord.
JAPAN’S FEUDAL
SOCIETY
In japan, the highest lord was the shogun, or military
dictator, who gave land to local lords known as daimyo in
exchange for their loyalty.
Various families controlled the shogunate over the
centuries.
The most famous family was the Tokugawa.
Members of this family ruled Japan from about 1603 to
1868.
4 Generations of Tokugawa
Tokugawa Period
JAPAN’S FEUDAL SOCIETY
The local lords maintained order in their lands through
the services of warriors known as samurai.
The emperor of Japan was a ceremonial leader having
no political power.
The majority of Japanese at this time were farmers
(1600s to 1800s)
Samurai Suit in Tokugawa Museum
WESTERN INFLUENCE
The Industrial Revolution and the resulting imperialist
pressures of the 19 th century ended Japan’s isolation.
In 1853, U.S. warships under the command of Matthew
Perry sailed into Tokyo Harbor.
WESTERN INFLUENCE
The Japanese marveled at these steam-powered, ironclad ships
armed with cannon.
Perry presented the Japanese with a letter from U.S. President
Franklin Pierce, requesting that Japan allow U.S. ships to trade in
Japanese ports.
Perry said he would return for an answer.
WESTERN INFLUENCE
After seeing Perry’s ships the Japanese realize that they
would be unable to resist the military and industrial
power of the United States.
In 1854, Japan and the United States signed a treaty to
pen Japan to U.S. trade.
Other nations soon followed the United States in
establishing trade and diplomatic relations with Japan.
SHIFT OF POWER IN JAPAN
In 1868, the Sat-Cho (an alliance of daimyo and samurai
in Japan’s southern provinces of Satsuma and Choshu)
overthrew the Tokugawa shogun’s government.
At first, this group was opposed to opening Japan to
trade.
Its members soon realized, however, that Japan could
not stand up to Western nations without developing its
own industrial and military power.
INDUSTRIALIZATION IN
JAPAN
SHIFT OF POWER IN JAPAN
They decided to support the 15 year old Emperor
Mutsuhito.
Mutsuhito called his reign Meiji, which means
“enlightened rule.”
SHIFT OF POWER IN JAPAN
However, the real power lay with the
Sat-Cho.
They succeeded in transforming Japan
from an isolated feudal society into a
modern industrial power.
This period is called the Meiji
Restoration.
WESTERNIZATION OF JAPAN
The Meiji leaders studied the institutions of Western
countries for ways to reform and modernize Japan.
They organized a new centralized government with a
legislative branch and a strong executive branch like
Germany’s.
They took the United States’ public education system as
a model for their own.
WESTERNIZATION OF JAPAN
To make their military resemble the armed forces of the
West, they expanded it and outfitted it with modern
equipment, including new battleships.
All Japanese men had to serve in the armed forces for
three years.
Like Western capitalists, they built factories and then
sold them to investors.
WESTERNIZATION OF JAPAN
A national railroad system was built to carry goods and
workers to the new factories.
Under Meiji Rule, Japan rapidly became an industrial
society and important world-trading partner.
WESTERNIZATION OF JAPAN
Based on observations of Western nations, Japan
decided that it, too, could benefit from a colonial
empire.
The Japanese islands lacked petroleum and iron
ore as well as other natural resources necessary
for industry.
The Japanese also wanted more land for an
expanding population.
WESTERNIZATION OF JAPAN
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Japan fought two
wars over Korea—one with China and one with Russia.
Japan won both wars.
The victory over Russia established Japan as world
power.
Japan controlled Taiwan, Manchuria, Korea, and several
islands off the coasts of China and Russia.
WESTERNIZATION OF JAPAN
Russo-Japanese War
Sino-Japanese War
Japanese Imperialism