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Slide # 1
Which of the Following
Is an Example of a Group?
Cheerleaders at a school
A high school football team
People lined up to vote
Women at a baby shower
Pedestrians at a crosswalk
Slide # 2
Cheerleaders
at a School
Slide # 3
Football Team
Slide # 4
People Lined Up to Vote
Slide # 5
Women at a Baby Shower
Slide # 6
Pedestrians
in a Crosswalk
Slide # 7
Primary Groups
 Families, couples in
love, street gangs,
social clubs
 Relationships that
are face-to-face and
personal
Slide # 8
Four Features
of a Primary Group
 Continuous, face-toface interaction
 Strong ties
 Multifaceted
 Enduring
Slide # 9
Secondary Groups
 Organized around
specific, impersonal
goals
 Not as much
interaction as in
primary groups
 School classes,
political parties,
sports teams
Slide # 10
Secondary
Group Characteristics
Limited face-to-face interaction
Modest or weak personal identity with
the group
Weak ties of affection
Limited/shallow relations
Not very enduring
Slide # 11
Why Join a Group ?
To satisfy the need to belong
To compare experiences
To use group standards to evaluate
ourselves
For companionship
To lessen anxiety and provide comfort
Group accomplishments
Slide # 12
A Case Study
How many of the reasons for joining a
group exist for the cheerleaders at San
Luis Obispo Senior High School in
California?
Slide # 13
Satisfy
Our Need to Belong
 “I joined the group
so that we can
entertain the
students. I enjoy
belonging to this
group.”
Slide # 14
Allows Us to Accomplish
Things We Could Not Do Alone
 “Yes, we all work
together and are
able to impress the
people we perform
for.”
Slide # 15
Use Group
Standards for Evaluation
 “Yes, definitely, to
see how others are
like me.”
Slide # 16
Companionship
 “We are like a
family, a good team.
I have a great deal
of friends on the
cheer and dance
team and I made a
lot of new friends.
It’s a big plus when
you get along with
everyone.”
Slide # 17
Comparing
Ourselves To Others
 “I had been dancing
and performing my
whole life and I
wanted to see
where I stood in a
performing group.”
Slide # 18
Peer Groups
 A group of friends or
associates of about
the same age and
social position
 Form cliques, clubs,
gangs
Slide # 19
Reference Groups
 A group that serves
as a standard for
evaluating one’s
achievement,
behavior, or values
Slide # 20
Group Dynamics
 The impact of group
size
 The dyad, or twoperson group
 The triad
 Multiples (division of
labor)
Slide # 21
The Triad
Slide # 22
Leadership
 Groups need
leaders for two
reasons
1. To direct tasks
2. Maintain good
spirits
 Groupthink
Slide # 23
Groupthink
 Emphasizes group
decisions in large
organizations
 People working
together will make
better decisions
than an individual
Slide # 24
When Does
Groupthink Occur?
 When group
members are unable
to evaluate other
available options
 Inability to
comprehend
negative
consequences
Slide # 25
Conditions
for Groupthink
 The group is
isolated from the
outside
 There are time limits
 Not having an
impartial leader
Slide # 26
Examples of Groupthink
Pearl Harbor and FDR
JFK’S invasion of Cuba
Nixon’s Watergate fiasco
Waco, Texas standoff
Slide # 27
Pearl Harbor: December 7, 1941
 U.S. leaders decide
not to take special
measures to defend
Pearl Harbor,
making it an easy
target for the
Japanese
 “A date which will
live in infamy”
Slide # 28
The Bay of Pigs Invasion
 An inheritance from
Ike
 The invasion plan
 JFK’s response
Slide # 29
Watergate: June 1972
 Bungled burglary
 CREEP
 29 people indicted
or arrested
Slide # 30
“I Am Not a Crook”
Slide # 31
Waco, Texas: 1993
 Standoff between
federal agents and
David Koresh
 The Attorney
General had waited
long enough
Slide # 32
In-groups
 A group with which a
person identifies
and feels that he or
she belongs
 A “greedy group”
Slide # 33
Characteristics
of In-groups
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Sacrifice
Investment
Renunciation
Communication
Mortification
Transcendence
Slide # 34
Out-groups
 A group with which a
person does not
identify and does
not feel that he or
she belongs to
Slide # 35
Gangs
Slide # 36
Types Of Gangs
Social gangs
Delinquent gangs
Violent gangs
Slide # 37
Gang Locations
 L.A. is the gang
capital of America
 Chicago, Seattle,
Kansas City
 Importance of drugs
Slide # 38
Public Housing Projects
A breeding ground for gangs
Family structure
“Trophies” / “graveyards”
Slide # 39
Ethnic/Gender Breakdowns
In the 1950s, gang members tended to
be white males
Today four-fifths of gang members are
African-American or Latino
Women have now entered the ranks as
well
Slide # 40
History of Gangs
Born out of the chaos of inner city life
(“Zoot Suit riots”)
Gangs offer ultimate control
Black gangs arose after the Watts riots
in 1965
Slide # 41
Gang Divisions
 Gang divisions are
called “sets”
 There are variations
even within each set
 Gangs and colors
Slide # 42
Hand Symbols
 Hand signals are
used as defiant
gestures toward
other gangs
 Each gang has their
own hand signals
Slide # 43
Gangbanging
 Los Vatos
Locos/Latino gang
of the 1970s
 Drugs of the
70’s/PCP
Slide # 44
Going “Loc”
 The Boo-Yah Tribe
 Sawed-off shotguns
 New drugs: speed,
crack-laced joints
Slide # 45
Levels of Membership
Slide # 46
Why Join a Gang?
Power
Identity
A surrogate family
Security
Slide # 47
Women in Gangs
 Makeup
 The raccoon look
 Tattoos
 Clothes
 Pregnancy
Slide # 48
Gang Members in Prison
 When someone
goes to prison in
California, they get
put into a “car”
 A gang member’s
“ride” in prison
Slide # 49
Self-Help Groups
Slide # 50
Causes Vary
 Phobias, drunk
driving, child
rearing, addictions,
cancer,
hyperactivity,
hospice
Slide # 51
Ryan
Slide # 52
Why Do People Join Support
Groups?
People have abandoned primary groups
People find substitutes to fill needs
Those who learn to cope often turn
around and help new members
Slide # 53
What Purposes Do Support
Groups Serve?
They provide moral support from people
in similar situations
They offer empathy and understanding
They give people the opportunity to
become members of an in-group
Slide # 54
The Networking Effect
Members exchange numbers and
communicate
No professional charges, but no
professional help
24-hour service and information
Slide # 55
Attitudes
Slide # 56
Definition of “Attitude”
A predisposition to respond in a
particular way
3 main elements
1. A belief or opinion
2. A feeling about something
3. A tendency to act toward
something in a particular way
Slide # 57
Cognitive Sources
 Factual information
 Cognitive
dissonance
 Inoculation effect
Slide # 58
Emotional Sources
 Strong feelings
without knowing why
 Classical
conditioning
 Subliminal
techniques
Slide # 59
A Subliminal Example
 1971 ad in Time
magazine
 Cost: $75,000
 24.2 million readers
 Free associate
(What do you see?)
Slide # 60
Subliminal Example # 2
Slide # 61
Objects Have Gender
 A sphere or oval is
feminine, a cube is
masculine
 A flower is feminine,
a tree is masculine
 A cat is feminine, a
dog is masculine
Slide # 62
The Importance of Color
 Red excites
 Yellow promotes
well-being
 Green soothes
 Dark colors add
weight
 Light colors suggest
lightness
Slide # 63
Size of an Object
Close-ups = larger than life, sense of
urgency, used to sell necessary
products
Far away = luxury items, removes the
sense of urgency and replaces it with a
feeling of extravagance
Slide # 64
Social Sources
 Culture
 Reference groups
as a standard for
evaluation
Slide # 65
Behavioral Sources
 Behavior itself can
cause attitudes to
change
Slide # 66
How Are
Attitudes Measured?
 Psychologists use
many different
techniques to
measure attitudes
Slide # 67
Public Opinion Polls
 Selecting a
representative
sample is crucial
 Important to avoid
biases
Slide # 68
Attitude Scales
 Likert Scale
1. Strongly agree
2. Agree
3. Undecided
4. Disagree
5. Strongly disagree
Slide # 69
Semantic Differential
 Good/bad
 Happy/sad
 Beautiful/ugly
 Wise/foolish
 Funny/humorless
Slide # 70
Unobtrusive Methods
 Milgram/lost letter
Slide # 71
How Are
Attitudes Changed?
People are always trying to change your
attitude
Slide # 72
Conformity
 Asch conformity
study, 1950
 People will usually
conform to other
people’s ideas even
when they disagree
with those ideas
Slide # 73
Asch’s Experiment
 Which line segment,
is closest in length
to the sample line:
a, b, or c?
Slide # 74
Scare Tactics
 Smoking/lung
cancer
 Driver training and
highway patrol films
 Scared Straight
Slide # 75
Obedience to Authority
 Stanley Milgram
 The psychologist as
experimenter
Slide # 76
Military Basic Training
 Boot camp
 Ten weeks of
indoctrination
 “In your face”
attitude change
 From civilian to
soldier
Slide # 77
Who Were Milgram’s Subjects?
In all but one version of the experiment,
the subjects were males
40%=skilled and unskilled
40%=white collar (sales and business)
20%=professionals
Slide # 78
The Set-Up
Slide # 79
Making Mistakes
After 75 volts are administered for a
mistake, the learner moans
At 90 volts, the learner cries out in pain
After 180 volts, the learner screams,
saying he cannot stand the pain, and
then begins to bang on the wall
Slide # 80
39 Psychiatrists Surveyed
Believed That…
Most subjects would stop at 150 volts
Only 4% would go as high as 300 volts
One in 1000 would go to 450 volts
Slide # 81
5 Versions
of the Experiment
First version: all men, 65% went all the
way (450 volts)
Experimenter absent: 20.5%
Women: 65%
Experimenter chooses shock level:
2.5%
High school students: 85%
Slide # 82
Why Do People Obey?
 American society
places a high value
on obedience to
people in positions
of authority
Slide # 83
Military Pilots
Slide # 84
Prestige And Credibility
 Volunteers were
influenced by their
role as a subject in
an experiment
 Done by a professor
at Yale university
Slide # 85
Not Everyone Is Equally
Obedient
 Sadistic or
obedient?
 Personality
variables
 Life experiences
Slide # 86
Nuremberg
War Crimes Trial
 The tribunal did not
intend to punish all
Germans, only the
ringleaders
 22 Nazi leaders
were indicted
Slide # 87
My Lai, Vietnam: 1968
 300–400 victims,
mostly women and
children
 Company C lands
on the LZ outside
the village
 Capt. Medina, Lt.
Calley in charge
Slide # 88
Civil Disobedience
RY
S BU
KING
 Rosa Parks and the
Montgomery bus
boycott
Slide # 89
Aggression
Slide # 90
Violent Crimes
 1.5 million violent
crimes are committed in
the U.S. each year,
including 90,000 rapes
and 20,000 murders
 3 ½ times more likely to
be murdered by a
relative
Slide # 91
Why Are We Aggressive?
 Thanatos—Freud’s
death instinct
 View of evolutionary
psychologists
 Hereditary
aggression
Slide # 92
The Brain and Aggression
 Amygdala
 Hypothalamus
 Prefrontal cortex
Slide # 93
Hormones
and Aggression
 Testosterone, a
primary male
hormone
 Alcohol and other
drugs
Slide # 94
Learning and Aggression
 People learn
aggression by
watching and
imitating others
 People become
more aggressive if
rewarded
 Frustration
Slide # 95
Pornography Connection
Slide # 96
Altruism/Unselfishness
Concern for Another’s Welfare
Slide # 97
The Cost–Reward Theory
 People find the sight
of another person
being victimized as
anxiety-provoking;
helping relieves this
anxiety
 Diffusion of
responsibility
Slide # 98
Empathy-Altruism Theory
 People are more
likely to act
altruistically—even
when the cost of
helping is high—if
they feel empathy
toward the person in
need
Slide # 99
Evolutionary Theory
 “Survival of the
fittest”: A person will
risk their life for
someone else
because if they
survive, it increases
the likelihood that
their traits will
endure through
generations
Slide # 100
The Rise of Cults
Slide # 101
Death Cults
 Charles Manson’s
“family”
 Rev. Jim Jones:
People’s Temple,
Jonestown, New
Guyana
 David Koresh: Branch
Davidian cult
 Marshall Applewhite:
Heaven’s Gate cult
Slide # 102
Conversion Model
Tension or strain (job failure, marital
breakup)
Religiously-oriented problem-solving
perspective
Open to a new religious outlook
Be at a turning point in life
Slide # 103
Situational Factors
Need to possess a close personal tie
with one or more cult member
Ties with people on the outside must be
neutralized/nonexistent
Intensive, daily interaction with cult
members
Slide # 104
Tactics of Cult Leaders
 Brainwashing/mind
control
 Isolation
 Sleep deprivation,
protein-deficient diet
 Exotic rituals
Slide # 105
Qualities of Cult Leaders
 Charismatic
personalities
 Apocalyptic world
view
 Interest in the Bible
 Prophet status
among their
followers
Slide # 106
An Early Cult
 Definition of a cult:
a religious
organization that is
largely outside of
society’s cultural
traditions and norms
 Ghost Dance: 1870s
Slide # 107
Jonestown 1979
 Early years
 The People’s
Temple in San
Francisco
 Life in Jonestown,
Guyana
 The Leo Ryan
investigation
Slide # 108
Vernon Howell,
A.K.A. David Koresh
 Offshoot of Seventh
Day Adventists
 Early years
 Waco and the
Branch Davidians
Slide # 109
The Davidian Ruler
 Dietary controls
 Apocalyptic world
view
 Polygamy
 The Star of David
Slide # 110
The Final Assault
 Initial ATF raid
 51-day standoff
 Psychological
warfare
 Send in the tanks
and the riot gas
Slide # 111
Heaven’s Gate
 Largest suicide on
U.S. soil
 Early years/rituals
 “Set thine house in
order: for thou shalt
die, and not live”
(Isaiah)
Slide # 112
Are Cult
Members Brainwashed?
Brainwashing Techniques
1. Total control and uncertainty
2. Isolation and torture
3. Physical weakening and personal
humiliation
Slide # 113
Attitude and Prejudice
 Prejudice is a
preconceived notion
toward a person or a
group
 Prejudice is
strengthened by
stereotyping
Slide # 114
A 1950s Male
Stereotype: The Rebel
Slide # 115
The Private Eye
Slide # 116
An Early Jock Stereotype
Slide # 117
The Hippie
Slide # 118
Racial
Stereotypes: The Jew
Slide # 119
The Mexican
Slide # 120
The Italian
Slide # 121
The Pole
Slide # 122
Native
American Stereotypes
Slide # 123
Stereotypes of African American
Women
Slide # 124
Little Black Sambo
Slide # 125