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Chapter 3 Values, Attitudes, and Their Effects in the Workplace Values Values Basic convictions about what is important to the individual They contain a judgmental element of what is right, good, or desirable. Values Types of values Terminal: Goals that individuals would like to achieve during their lifetime Instrumental: Preferable ways of behaving Importance of values Values generally influence attitudes and behaviour. Values vs. Ethics Ethics The science of morals in human conduct Moral principles; rules of conduct Ethical Values are related to moral judgments about right and wrong A Framework for Assessing Cultural Values Hofstede’s Dimensions Power Distance Individualism Versus Collectivism Quantity of Life Versus Quality of Life Uncertainty Avoidance Long-term versus Short-term Orientation Exhibit 3-2 Examples of National Cultural Values Canadian Values The Elders – over 50 The Boomers – born mid 1940’s to mid1960’s Generation X – born mid 1960’s to early 1980’s The Ne(x)t Generation – born between 1977-1997 Canadian Social Values The Elders Those over 50 Core Values: Belief in order, authority, discipline, and the Golden Rule The Boomers Born mid-1940s to mid-1960s Autonomous rebels, anxious communitarians, connected enthusiasts, disengaged Darwinists Canadian Social Values Generation X Born mid-1960s to early 1980s Thrill-seeking materialists, aimless dependents, social hedonists, new Aquarians, autonomous postmaterialists The Ne(x)t Generation Born between 1977 and 1997 “Creators, not recipients” Curious, contrarian, flexible, collaborative, high in self-esteem Francophone and Anglophone Values Francophone Values More collectivist or group-oriented Greater need for achievement Concerned with interpersonal aspects of workplace Value affiliation Anglophone Values Individualist or Icentred More task-centred Take more risks Value autonomy Canadian Aboriginal Values More collectivist in orientation More likely to reflect and advance the goals of the community Greater sense of family in the workplace Greater affiliation and loyalty Power distance lower than non-Aboriginal culture of Canada and the U.S. Greater emphasis on consensual decisionmaking Exhibit 3-3 Ground Rules for Aboriginal Partnerships Modify management operations to reduce negative impact to wildlife species Modify operations to ensure community access to lands and resources Protect all those areas identified by community members as having biological, cultural and historical significance Recognize and protect aboriginal and treaty rights to hunting, fishing, trapping and gathering activities Increase forest-based economic opportunities for community members Increase the involvement of community members in decisionmaking Canadian and American Values Canadian Values Protectionist business environment Personality: more shy and deferential, less violent, more courteous More rule-oriented Peace, order, equality Uncomfortable celebrating success, play it down American Values Greater faith in the family, the state, religion, and the market More comfortable with big business Intense competition in business Individuality and freedom More comfortable with the unknown and taking risks East and Southeast Asian Values North America Networked relations: based on self-interest Relationships viewed with immediate gains Enforcement relies on institutional law Governed by guilt (internal pressures on performance) East and Southeast Asia Guanxi relations: based on reciprocation Relationships meant to be long-term and enduring Enforcement relies on personal power and authority Governed by shame (external pressures on performance) Attitudes Positive or negative feelings concerning objects, people, or events. Less stable than values Types of Attitudes Job Involvement Organizational Commitment . . . measures the degree to which a person identifies psychologically with his or her job and considers his or her perceived performance level important to self-worth. . . . a state in which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals, and wishes to maintain membership in the organization. Job Satisfaction . . . refers to an individual’s general attitude toward his or her job. Canadian Job Satisfaction In 1991, 62 per cent of employees reported they were highly satisfied with their jobs, compared to just 45 per cent in 2001. Almost 40 percent of employees would not recommend their company as a good place to work. 40 percent believe they never see any of the benefits of their company making money. Almost 40 percent reported that red tape and bureaucracy are among the biggest barriers to job satisfaction. 55 percent reported that they felt the “pressure of having too much to do.” Job Satisfaction and Employee Performance Satisfaction Affects Individual Productivity Organizational Productivity Absenteeism Turnover Organizational Citizenship Behaviour Expressing Dissatisfaction Exit Voice Loyalty Neglect Summary and Implications Values strongly influence a person’s attitudes. An employee’s performance and satisfaction are likely to be higher if his or her values fit well with the organization. Managers should be interested in their employees’ attitudes because attitudes give warning signs of potential problems and because they influence behaviour.