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Transcript
Think About
What policies might help
address the population issues
in your region?
Population Policies
How nations have attempted to
increase, decrease and perfect
populations
Expansionist Policies
Pronatalist
 Incentives:

–

Penalties:
–

Subsidies, childcare, preferential
treatment
Punishment for using/teaching about
contraception
Propaganda
France
France

Post- WWII

Propaganda

Incentives
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
Romania
Nikolai Ceausescu
Romania

Concerned with
falling birthrate

Economy

Racist
Romania, 1967-89

Methods
–
–
–
–
–
–
Abortion illegal
Contraception banned
Divorce very difficult
Monthly gynecological checkups for all
women
Some financial incentives for multiple
children
Punitive taxes for over 25 with no children
Romania: Results
 Short-term
 Big
rise in birth rate
increase in maternal mortality
 Huge
number of orphans
Critical Thinking

What makes for good pronatalist
policy?
Restrictive Policies
Antinatalist
 Concerned with overpopulation
 Incentives

–
Better resources, preferential treatment
– Access to family planning services

Penalties
–
Loss of opportunities, status
– Criminal prosecution
China

Under Mao, population
growth encouraged

Communist
government introduces
“One Child” policy
China
One Child Policy, 1979-Now

Families are “encouraged” to only have
one child

Incentives for one-child families

Punitive measures
One Child Policy, 1979-Now

“Where there are evil people who
actually sabotage or undermine the
policy of family planning, we must
mobilize the masses to expose them in
a timely way and subject them to
severe treatment by the judiciary and
related departments”
–
Government of China directive
One Child Policy, 1979-Now

Burden falls mostly on women

China in danger of having a shortage
of women
Critical Thinking

What makes for good antinatalist
policy?
Eugenics

“Perfecting” the
population

Breeding

Denying some
ability to reproduce
Brazil
Brazil

1890-1930

The “Whitening”
–
Pro-European
Immigration
–
Encouraged
miscegenation
–
“Brazilian Man”
Brazil: Results

“Race” is much harder to define

Darker-skinned people discriminated
against

Recent resurgence of “Afro-Brazilian”
identity
Sweden

1934-76

Forced sterilization
–
–
–
–

Mentally ill
Roma (Gypsies)
“loose” women
orphans
Over 62,000
sterilized