To Review… 1. What four kingdoms of Mesopotamia have we discussed thus far? 2. What was the name of the first king who developed a strict code of law? 3. What was the first epic literary tale called? 4. What was the name of the religious temples that the ancient Mesopotamians built? 5. King Nebuchadnezzar built what ancient wonder of the world? 6. What was the name of the script that we studied and wrote in class last week? Chapter 2, Section 4 Later Mediterranean Civilizations The Phoenicians • Located in present day Lebanon – The western most part of Mesopotamia • Thrived between 1550 and 300 BC • Largest cities located at Tyre, Sidon, and Byblos • Also known as Canaanites Phoenicia • Lived: The Phoenicians established a trade empire, and colonies, throughout the Mediterranean. • The first “traveling salesmen” • Made Living: They traded goods including glass, slaves, wine and lumber • Goods: Their most important product was Tyrian purple, a dye made from boiling the Murex snail. • This purple dye was very difficult and expensive to produce. It was very valuable to the rich. Murex snail What do you notice about the Phoenician trade routes? Murex Snails Tyrian Purple Dye Other Trade Goods Cretan Hound Portuguese Podengo Pharaoh Hound Basenji Ibizan Hound Bireme • Two rows of oars • It typically was about 80 feet long • Phoenician ships did not have rudders. Instead they were steered by large oars. Phoenician sailors usually sailed within sight of the coast. • Because their ships were vulnerable to storms the Phoenicians normally sailed between March and October. Bireme The Phoenician Alphabet • The Phoenicians spread their alphabet throughout the Mediterranean • Consisted of 22 letters, it did not have vowels. • Unlike many early alphabets which were made of pictograms, the Phoenician alphabet was phonic. • The Greeks eventually adopted this alphabet, which influenced the Latin alphabet which we use today. Phoenician Alphabet Phoenician Artifacts • Israelites : Semitic-speaking people who lived south of the Phoenicians in the Levant. • Compared to other groups in the region, they were a small group. • Judaism, continues as a world religion and influenced the development of Christianity and Islam. • Monotheism: Judaism was the first religion to worship only One God. • Yahweh: The Jewish name for God. • The Jews viewed Yahweh as being • All-knowing (Omniscient) • All-powerful (Omnipotent) “He Brings Into Existence Whatever Exists" History of the Hebrews • Abraham is seen as the Patriarch, or father, of Judaism. • According to Jewish tradition Abraham was brought by God from his home in the ancient city of Ur into a new land, Canaan (the holy land), where he enters into a covenant (agreement) with God: • In exchange for sole recognition of Yahweh as supreme universal authority, Abraham will be the father of a great nation…the Jews. Abraham’s Departure from Ur Abraham is Father of the Jewish People Exodus… • For over 200 years, the Jews had been slaves to the ancient Egyptians. • Moses was the leader of the Hebrew Exodus. • The story goes that the Hebrew God had to curse Egypt with 10 plagues in order for the Pharaoh (Ramses II) to free the Israelites from bondage. Passover • Comes directly from the 10th Plague • God commanded Moses to inform all the Israelites to mark lamb’s blood on the doorposts of every door in which case the Lord will pass over them and not "suffer the destroyer to come into your houses and smite you” – Pharaoh then releases the Hebrews from slavery Moses Parting the Red Sea Ta-Da! Passover Seder: Slavery &Freedom 1. – 2. Maror and Chazeret: Two types of bitter herbs, symbolizing the bitterness and harshness of the slavery which the Jews endured in Ancient Egypt. 3. Charoset: A sweet, brown, pebbly paste of fruits and nuts, representing the mortar used by the Jewish slaves to build the storehouses of Egypt. 4. Karpas: A vegetable other than bitter herbs, usually parsley but sometimes something such as celery or cooked potato, which is dipped into salt water or vinegar is to symbolize the salty tears that the Jews shed in their slavery in Egypt. 5. Zeroa: A roasted lamb bone, symbolizing the sacrifice offered in the Temple in Jerusalem and was then roasted and eaten as part of the meal on Seder night. 6. Beitzah: A hard boiled egg, symbolizing the another type of sacrifice that was offered in the Temple in Jerusalem and was then eaten as part of the meal on Seder night. Chazeret Beitzah Zeroa Yum! Karpasa Maror Charoset Passover Seder: Slavery &Freedom Also eaten/drunk: • The 4 Cups: All participants must drink 4 cups of wine. Each symbolizes the following expressions of deliverance:"I will bring out," "I will deliver," "I will redeem," and "I will take.“ • Matzo: participants recall the slavery that reigned during the first half of the night by eating the "poor person's bread“ (matzo) 4 Cups & Matzo 40 Years in the Wilderness • According to the Torah, the Israelites disobeyed God and wandered the desert for 40 years before reaching the holy land. The Ten Commandments • According to Judaic texts, Moses was given the 10 Commandments by God on Mount Sinai and inscribed on two stone tablets. What if God Texted the 10 Commandments • • • • 1. no1 b4 me. srsly. 2. dnt wrshp pix/idols 3. no omg’s 4. no wrk on w/end (sat 4 now; sun l8r) • 5. pos ok – ur m&d r cool • 6. dnt kill ppl • • • • 7. :-X only w/ m8 8. dnt steal 9. dnt lie re: bf 10. dnt ogle ur bf’s m8. or ox. or dnkey. myob. • M, pls rite on tabs & giv 2 ppl. • ttyl, JHWH. • ps. wwjd? The Kingdom of Israel • King Solomon (the son of David) was considered the wise king – – – – Ruled from 970 – 930 BC United the 12 tribes of Israel Established Jerusalem as the capital Built the great temple, which was destroyed, but today is known as the Western or Wailing Wall That’s right…I was a stud. I, had 700 wives. 12 Tribes of Israel After Solomon • The Kingdom of Israel divided into 2 kingdoms: Israel & Judah – The Assyrians destroy Israel – Judah is defeated by King Nebuchadnezzar and the Jews are taken into Babylonian captivity • They also destroy the Temple • This is the first diaspora: the scattering of the Jewish people. After Babylonian Captivity • When Persia defeats Babylon, the Jews are freed and return to Jerusalem and rebuild their city & temple. • The Jews stayed in Israel until the Romans destroyed the Temple again in 70 CE beginning the second Diaspora. • Then: Jews were scattered throughout Europe. – European anti-Semitism in the Middle Ages – Holocaust of WWII – After WWII: the United Nations formed the state of Israel in 1948 The Western or Wailing Wall • Located in Jerusalem • The most important of all Jewish monuments. • It is the remnants of the Second Temple, after its destruction by the Romans in 70 A.D. The Wailing Wall • The Torah is the holy book of Judaism, the laws of the Jewish people. • It is the first five books of the Christian Bible • The Torah is also known as the Five Books of Moses or the Pentateuch • Books written to explain and interpret Jewish law • Bris ceremony within Judaism that welcomes infant (8 days old) Jewish boys into a covenant between God and the Children of Israel through ritual circumcision performed by a mohel ("circumcisor") in the presence of family and friends. Bar Mitzvah & Bat Mitzvah • In Jewish law, when Jewish children reach the age of maturity (12 years for girls, 13 years for boys) they become responsible for their actions. • A boy has a Bar Mitzvah • A girl has a Bat Mitzvah • Before this age, all the child's responsibility to follow Jewish law and tradition lies with the parents. Shiv’ah • Judaism's week-long period of grief and mourning for the seven first-degree relatives: father, mother, son, daughter, brother, sister, or spouse; (grandparents and grandchildren are not included). Rabbi • A Rabbi is a teacher of the Torah. Shabbat is the weekly day of rest in Judaism. It is observed, from before sundown on Friday until after nightfall on Saturday. During this time no work is supposed to be done. Yom Kippur A Jewish Day of Atonement (Asking for forgiveness). It is 25 hours of prayer and fasting. Although the fast is required of all healthy adults, fasting is specifically forbidden for anyone who might be harmed by it. Hanukkah • Jewish Holiday often called the Festival of lights. It celebrates the rededication of the 2nd Temple of Jerusalem. • The Jews had only enough lamp oil to burn for one day, but it lasted 8 days, which was enough time to make and bless more lamp oil.