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To Review…
1. What four kingdoms of Mesopotamia have we
discussed thus far?
2. What was the name of the first king who
developed a strict code of law?
3. What was the first epic literary tale called?
4. What was the name of the religious temples
that the ancient Mesopotamians built?
5. King Nebuchadnezzar built what ancient
wonder of the world?
6. What was the name of the script that we
studied and wrote in class last week?
Chapter 2,
Section 4
Later Mediterranean
The Phoenicians
• Located in present day Lebanon
– The western most part of
• Thrived between 1550 and 300
• Largest cities located at Tyre,
Sidon, and Byblos
• Also known as Canaanites
• Lived: The Phoenicians established a
trade empire, and colonies, throughout
the Mediterranean.
• The first “traveling salesmen”
• Made Living: They traded goods including
glass, slaves, wine and lumber
• Goods: Their most important product was
Tyrian purple, a dye made from boiling
the Murex snail.
• This purple dye was very difficult and
expensive to produce. It was very
valuable to the rich.
Murex snail
What do you notice about the
Phoenician trade routes?
Murex Snails
Tyrian Purple Dye
Other Trade Goods
Cretan Hound
Portuguese Podengo
Pharaoh Hound
Ibizan Hound
• Two rows of oars
• It typically was about 80 feet long
• Phoenician ships did not have rudders.
Instead they were steered by large oars.
Phoenician sailors usually sailed within sight
of the coast.
• Because their ships were vulnerable to
storms the Phoenicians normally sailed
between March and October.
The Phoenician Alphabet
• The Phoenicians spread their alphabet
throughout the Mediterranean
• Consisted of 22 letters, it did not have
• Unlike many early alphabets which were made
of pictograms, the Phoenician alphabet was
• The Greeks eventually adopted this alphabet,
which influenced the Latin alphabet which we
use today.
Phoenician Alphabet
Phoenician Artifacts
• Israelites : Semitic-speaking people who
lived south of the Phoenicians in the
• Compared to other groups in the region, they
were a small group.
• Judaism, continues as a world religion and
influenced the development of Christianity
and Islam.
• Monotheism: Judaism was the first
religion to worship only One God.
• Yahweh: The Jewish name for God.
• The Jews viewed Yahweh as being
• All-knowing (Omniscient)
• All-powerful (Omnipotent)
“He Brings Into Existence Whatever
History of the Hebrews
• Abraham is seen as the Patriarch, or father,
of Judaism.
• According to Jewish tradition Abraham was
brought by God from his home in the ancient
city of Ur into a new land, Canaan (the holy
land), where he enters into a covenant
(agreement) with God:
• In exchange for sole recognition of Yahweh
as supreme universal authority, Abraham will
be the father of a great nation…the Jews.
Abraham’s Departure from
Abraham is Father of the
Jewish People
• For over 200 years, the Jews
had been slaves to the ancient
• Moses was the leader of the
Hebrew Exodus.
• The story goes that the Hebrew
God had to curse Egypt with 10
plagues in order for the Pharaoh
(Ramses II) to free the
Israelites from bondage.
• Comes directly from the 10th Plague
• God commanded Moses to inform all the
Israelites to mark lamb’s blood on the
doorposts of every door in which case
the Lord will pass over them and not
"suffer the destroyer to come into your
houses and smite you”
– Pharaoh then releases the Hebrews from
Moses Parting the Red Sea
Passover Seder: Slavery &Freedom
1. – 2. Maror and Chazeret: Two types of bitter herbs, symbolizing
the bitterness and harshness of the slavery which the Jews endured
in Ancient Egypt.
3. Charoset: A sweet, brown, pebbly paste of fruits and nuts,
representing the mortar used by the Jewish slaves to build the
storehouses of Egypt.
4. Karpas: A vegetable other than bitter herbs, usually parsley but
sometimes something such as celery or cooked potato, which is dipped
into salt water or vinegar is to symbolize the salty tears that the
Jews shed in their slavery in Egypt.
5. Zeroa: A roasted lamb bone, symbolizing the sacrifice offered in
the Temple in Jerusalem and was then roasted and eaten as part of
the meal on Seder night.
6. Beitzah: A hard boiled egg, symbolizing the another type of
sacrifice that was offered in the Temple in Jerusalem and was then
eaten as part of the meal on Seder night.
Passover Seder:
Slavery &Freedom
Also eaten/drunk:
• The 4 Cups: All participants must drink 4 cups
of wine. Each symbolizes the following
expressions of deliverance:"I will bring out," "I
will deliver," "I will redeem," and "I will take.“
• Matzo: participants recall the slavery that
reigned during the first half of the night by
eating the "poor person's bread“ (matzo)
4 Cups & Matzo
40 Years in the Wilderness
• According to
the Torah, the
disobeyed God
and wandered
the desert for
40 years before
reaching the
holy land.
The Ten Commandments
• According to Judaic texts, Moses was
given the 10 Commandments by God on
Mount Sinai and inscribed on two stone
What if God Texted the 10
1. no1 b4 me. srsly.
2. dnt wrshp pix/idols
3. no omg’s
4. no wrk on w/end
(sat 4 now; sun l8r)
• 5. pos ok – ur m&d r
• 6. dnt kill ppl
7. :-X only w/ m8
8. dnt steal
9. dnt lie re: bf
10. dnt ogle ur bf’s m8. or
ox. or dnkey. myob.
• M, pls rite on tabs & giv 2
• ttyl, JHWH.
• ps. wwjd?
The Kingdom of Israel
• King Solomon (the son of David) was
considered the wise king
Ruled from 970 – 930 BC
United the 12 tribes of Israel
Established Jerusalem as the capital
Built the great temple, which was
destroyed, but today is known as the
Western or Wailing Wall
That’s right…I was a
stud. I, had 700
12 Tribes of
After Solomon
• The Kingdom of Israel divided into 2
kingdoms: Israel & Judah
– The Assyrians destroy Israel
– Judah is defeated by King Nebuchadnezzar
and the Jews are taken into Babylonian
• They also destroy the Temple
• This is the first diaspora: the
scattering of the Jewish people.
After Babylonian Captivity
• When Persia defeats Babylon, the Jews
are freed and return to Jerusalem and
rebuild their city & temple.
• The Jews stayed in Israel until the
Romans destroyed the Temple again in
70 CE beginning the second Diaspora.
• Then: Jews were scattered throughout
– European anti-Semitism in the Middle Ages
– Holocaust of WWII
– After WWII: the United Nations formed the
state of Israel in 1948
The Western or Wailing Wall
• Located in Jerusalem
• The most important of all Jewish
• It is the remnants of the Second
Temple, after its destruction by the
Romans in 70 A.D.
The Wailing Wall
• The Torah is the holy book of
Judaism, the laws of the Jewish
• It is the first five books of the
Christian Bible
• The Torah is also known as the Five
Books of Moses or the Pentateuch
• Books written to explain and interpret Jewish law
Bris ceremony within
Judaism that welcomes
infant (8 days old) Jewish
boys into a covenant between
God and the Children of
Israel through ritual
circumcision performed by a
mohel ("circumcisor") in the
presence of family and
Bar Mitzvah & Bat Mitzvah
• In Jewish law, when Jewish children
reach the age of maturity (12 years for
girls, 13 years for boys) they become
responsible for their actions.
• A boy has a Bar Mitzvah
• A girl has a Bat Mitzvah
• Before this age, all the child's
responsibility to follow Jewish law and
tradition lies with the parents.
• Judaism's week-long
period of grief and
mourning for the seven
first-degree relatives:
father, mother, son,
daughter, brother,
sister, or spouse;
(grandparents and
grandchildren are not
• A Rabbi is a teacher of
the Torah.
is the weekly day of
rest in Judaism. It is observed,
from before sundown on Friday
until after nightfall on Saturday.
During this time no work is
supposed to be done.
Yom Kippur
A Jewish Day of Atonement
(Asking for forgiveness). It is 25
hours of prayer and fasting.
Although the fast is required of all
healthy adults, fasting is
specifically forbidden for anyone
who might be harmed by it.
• Jewish Holiday often called
the Festival of lights. It
celebrates the rededication
of the 2nd Temple of
• The Jews had only enough
lamp oil to burn for one day,
but it lasted 8 days, which
was enough time to make and
bless more lamp oil.