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Ancient Egypt
• *Built as tombs
• *Protection for the body and gifts for the
• *Great Pyramids located in Giza
• *Stone monument – body of a lion & head
of a pharaoh
• *The Great Sphinx – found outside the
Great pyramids – used to protect the kings
in the afterlife
• *Body preserved by drying
• *Linen strips, natron and sacred oils used
to preserve the body
• *Canopic Jars saved internal organs
• *Tall 4-sided pillar
• *Hieroglyphics carved on sides
• *Found outside temples and tombs
• *Magical charm that protects against evil
• *Added to the linen in which mummies
were wrapped
• *Rulers of the same family that rule year
after year
• *The kingdom’s rule goes from the oldest
male in each generation and passes to the
oldest male in the next generation. Ex.
Father is the ruler – when he dies, the
kingdom goes to his oldest son.
• *Burial spot
• *Valley of the Kings – Most of the kings
were buried in this area. Did you know
that almost all of the tombs were broken
into and the remains and treasures were
B.C. (BCE)
• B.C. – Before Christ – Based on the
Roman calendar
• *BCE – Before Common Era – politically
correct time element for those who don’t
follow Christianity
A.D. (CE)
• A.D. – Latin – Anno Domini – which means
The year of our Lord. It denotes the time
from when Jesus was born until the
• *CE – Common Era – the same time
distinctions – but politically correct for
those who are not Christians
Nile River
• *Longest River in the world
• **4000 Miles Long – WOW!!!
• *Cataracts – water falls
Upper Egypt
• *Southern Nile – South of the Delta
• *This is opposite of what you would think –
Upper Egypt is actually south on the map,
not north! It’s based on elevation…
Lower Egypt
• *Nile Delta – an area with lots of fertile
• *Near the Mediterranean Sea
• *Papyrus, The Rosetta Stone, fertile soil
and marshmallows (it’s true) were just
some of the things this area was noted for!
• *Capital of Ancient Egypt (Old Kingdom)
• *Capital of Ancient Egypt – New Kingdom
• *Marble temples, palaces, pools
• *Lots of riches!
• *Picture writing of Ancient Egypt
• *Unable to decipher hieroglyphics until the
Rosetta Stone was discovered!
• *An oval frame used to surround the
hieroglyphic name of an important person
• *Water plant – found in the Nile Delta
• *Reeds were used to make the first
• *A person’s spirit
• *Needed a body to live in after death
• *Received offerings
• *Ancient Egyptian rulers
• *Believed they were children of the sun
god, Re
• *Here are some names you might
• King Ramses, King Tut, Queen
Cleopatra… There are others you’ll learn
about too!!
King Ramsses
• *Most powerful of all pharaohs
• *Many huge statues of him!
• *King Ramsses I & II
• *You might see his name spelled Ramsses
or Ramses – both are correct!
Queen Hatshepsut
• *Powerful woman pharaoh
• *Ruled during the 18th dynasty
• *Took the crown from her young step-son
after his father died – sneaky!
• *Very prosperous – Lots of trade!!
King Tutankhamen
• *King Tut
• *Howard Carter found tomb in 1922
• *Only tomb found with all of the riches still
Queen Cleopatra
• *Last ruler of Egypt
• *Ruled during the time of Julius Caesar
and Augustus
• *Egypt fell to Rome
• *High government official – someone who
would help the king with decisions and
carrying out rules…. think of the word
Valley of the Kings
• *Burial place of the pharaohs
• *Most of the kings were buried here, not in
• *Considered the most powerful god
• *God of the sun
• *Pharaohs were thought to be children of
the sun god.
• *Ruler of the dead (underworld)
• *God of re-birth and vegetation
• *Goddess of love and happiness
• *Represented with ears and head of a cow
• (Because, let’s face it, nothing says “love”
quite like a head of a cow….)
• *Goddess of Thebes
• *Great divine mother
Rosetta Stone
• *Carved stone
• *Writing in 3 different languages
• *Key to understanding hieroglyphics
• *Located today in the British Museum –
controversy as to who should own it…
• *Represents the heavens and the sky
Words you want to remember…
• You have a couple extra boxes so you can
add words that you think are interesting!
• Dive in and start having fun – Ancient
Egypt is a really neat civilization to study!!