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Ancient Egypt Vocabulary Pyramids • *Built as tombs • *Protection for the body and gifts for the afterlife • *Great Pyramids located in Giza Sphinx • *Stone monument – body of a lion & head of a pharaoh • *The Great Sphinx – found outside the Great pyramids – used to protect the kings in the afterlife Mummy • *Body preserved by drying • *Linen strips, natron and sacred oils used to preserve the body • *Canopic Jars saved internal organs Obelisk • *Tall 4-sided pillar • *Hieroglyphics carved on sides • *Found outside temples and tombs Amulet • *Magical charm that protects against evil • *Added to the linen in which mummies were wrapped Dynasty • *Rulers of the same family that rule year after year • *The kingdom’s rule goes from the oldest male in each generation and passes to the oldest male in the next generation. Ex. Father is the ruler – when he dies, the kingdom goes to his oldest son. Tomb • *Burial spot • *Valley of the Kings – Most of the kings were buried in this area. Did you know that almost all of the tombs were broken into and the remains and treasures were stolen?? B.C. (BCE) • B.C. – Before Christ – Based on the Roman calendar • *BCE – Before Common Era – politically correct time element for those who don’t follow Christianity A.D. (CE) • A.D. – Latin – Anno Domini – which means The year of our Lord. It denotes the time from when Jesus was born until the present • *CE – Common Era – the same time distinctions – but politically correct for those who are not Christians Nile River • *Longest River in the world • **4000 Miles Long – WOW!!! • *Cataracts – water falls Upper Egypt • *Southern Nile – South of the Delta • *This is opposite of what you would think – Upper Egypt is actually south on the map, not north! It’s based on elevation… Lower Egypt • *Nile Delta – an area with lots of fertile land • *Near the Mediterranean Sea • *Papyrus, The Rosetta Stone, fertile soil and marshmallows (it’s true) were just some of the things this area was noted for! Memphis • *Capital of Ancient Egypt (Old Kingdom) Thebes • *Capital of Ancient Egypt – New Kingdom • *Marble temples, palaces, pools • *Lots of riches! Hieroglyphics • *Picture writing of Ancient Egypt • *Unable to decipher hieroglyphics until the Rosetta Stone was discovered! Cartouche • *An oval frame used to surround the hieroglyphic name of an important person Papyrus • *Water plant – found in the Nile Delta • *Reeds were used to make the first “paper” Ba/Ka • *A person’s spirit • *Needed a body to live in after death • *Received offerings Pharaoh • *Ancient Egyptian rulers • *Believed they were children of the sun god, Re • *Here are some names you might recognize… • King Ramses, King Tut, Queen Cleopatra… There are others you’ll learn about too!! King Ramsses • *Most powerful of all pharaohs • *Many huge statues of him! • *King Ramsses I & II • *You might see his name spelled Ramsses or Ramses – both are correct! Queen Hatshepsut • *Powerful woman pharaoh • *Ruled during the 18th dynasty • *Took the crown from her young step-son after his father died – sneaky! • *Very prosperous – Lots of trade!! King Tutankhamen • *King Tut • *Howard Carter found tomb in 1922 • *Only tomb found with all of the riches still inside!! Queen Cleopatra • *Last ruler of Egypt • *Ruled during the time of Julius Caesar and Augustus • *Egypt fell to Rome Vizier • *High government official – someone who would help the king with decisions and carrying out rules…. think of the word advisor… Valley of the Kings • *Burial place of the pharaohs • *Most of the kings were buried here, not in pyramids. Re • *Considered the most powerful god • *God of the sun • *Pharaohs were thought to be children of the sun god. Osiris • *Ruler of the dead (underworld) • *God of re-birth and vegetation Hathor • *Goddess of love and happiness • *Represented with ears and head of a cow • (Because, let’s face it, nothing says “love” quite like a head of a cow….) Mut • *Goddess of Thebes • *Great divine mother Rosetta Stone • *Carved stone • *Writing in 3 different languages • *Key to understanding hieroglyphics • *Located today in the British Museum – controversy as to who should own it… Nut • *Represents the heavens and the sky Words you want to remember… • You have a couple extra boxes so you can add words that you think are interesting! • Dive in and start having fun – Ancient Egypt is a really neat civilization to study!!