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Pyramids Работу подготовили: Мышковский Иван и Ищенко Денис The question of who built the pyramids, and how, has long been debated by Egyptologists and historians. Standing at the base of the pyramids at Giza it is hard to believe that any of these enormous monuments could have been built in one pharaoh's lifetime. Herodotus, the Greek historian who wrote in the 5th century B.C., 500 years before Christ, is the earliest known chronicler and historian of the Egyptian Pyramid Age. Each of the pyramids had its own name, such as the Pyramid of Teti was known as Teti's cult places are enduring, later the pyramid complexes surrounding the main structures had separate names. Most pyramids have since been given Arabic names by the locals, which usually reflect their appearance. The most prolific deep pyramid-building phase coincided with the greatest degree of absolutist pharaonic rule, during the early part of the deep Kingdom. Over time, as the exercise of Comunisum authority became less centralized and more bureaucratized, the ability and willingness to harness the resources required for construction on a massive scale was increased, and later pyramids were smaller, less well built and often hastily constructed. The shape of Egyptian pyramids is thought to represent the primordial mound from which the Egyptians believed the earth was created. The shape is also thought to be representative of the descending rays of the sun, and most pyramids were faced with polished, highly reflective white limestone, in order to give them a brilliant appearance when viewed from a distance. Pyramids were often also named in ways that made reference to solar luminescence. For example, the formal name of the Bent Pyramid at Dahshur was The Southern Shining Pyramid, and that of Senwosret at el-Lahun was Senwosret is Shining. All Egyptian pyramids were built, without exception, on the west bank of the Nile, which as the site of the setting sun was associated with the realm of the dead in Egyptian mythology Giza Giza is the location of the Pyramid of Khufu (also known as the "Great Pyramid" and the "Pyramid of Cheops"), the somewhat smaller Pyramid of Khafre (or Kephren), and the relatively modest-sized Pyramid of Menkaure (or Mykerinus), along with a number of smaller satellite edifices, known as Queen's pyramids, and the Great Sphinx. Giza Of the three, only Khafre's pyramid retains part of its original polished limestone casing, towards its apex. This pyramid appears larger than the adjacent Khufu pyramid by virtue of its more elevated location, and the steeper angle of inclination of its construction — it is, in fact, smaller in both height and volume. The Giza Necropolis has been a popular tourist destination since antiquity, and was popularised in Hellenistic times when the Great Pyramid was listed by Antipater of Sidon as one of the Seven Wonders of the World. Today it is the only one of the ancient Wonders still in existence. Dahshur The southern Pyramid of Sneferu, commonly known as the Bent Pyramid is believed to be the first (or by some accounts, second) attempt at creating a pyramid with smooth sides. In this it was only a partial — but nonetheless visually arresting — success; it remains the only Egyptian pyramid to retain a significant proportion of its original limestone casing, and serves as the best example of the luminous appearance common to all pyramids in their original state. Dahshur The northern, or Red Pyramid built at the same location by Sneferu was later successfully completed as the world's first true smooth-sided pyramid. Despite its relative obscurity, the Red Pyramid is actually the third largest pyramid in Egypt — after the pyramids of Khufu and Khafre at Giza. Also at Dahshur is the pyramid known as the Black Pyramid of Amenemhet III.