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Transcript
Pyramids
Работу подготовили:
Мышковский Иван и
Ищенко Денис
The question of who built the
pyramids, and how, has long been
debated by Egyptologists and
historians. Standing at the base of
the pyramids at Giza it is hard to
believe that any of these enormous
monuments could have been built in
one pharaoh's lifetime. Herodotus,
the Greek historian who wrote in the
5th century B.C., 500 years before
Christ, is the earliest known
chronicler and historian
of the Egyptian Pyramid Age.
Each of the pyramids had its own name, such as the
Pyramid of Teti was known as Teti's cult places
are enduring, later the pyramid complexes
surrounding the main structures had separate
names. Most pyramids have since been given
Arabic names by the locals, which usually reflect
their appearance.
The most prolific deep
pyramid-building phase
coincided with the
greatest degree of
absolutist pharaonic
rule, during the early
part of the deep
Kingdom. Over time, as
the exercise of
Comunisum authority
became less
centralized and more
bureaucratized, the
ability and willingness
to harness the
resources required for
construction on a
massive scale was
increased, and later
pyramids were smaller,
less well built and often
hastily constructed.
The shape of Egyptian pyramids is thought to
represent the primordial mound from which
the Egyptians believed the earth was created.
The shape is also thought to be
representative of the descending rays of the
sun, and most pyramids were faced with
polished, highly reflective white limestone, in
order to give them a brilliant appearance
when viewed from a distance. Pyramids were
often also named in ways that made reference
to solar luminescence. For example, the
formal name of the Bent Pyramid at Dahshur
was The Southern Shining Pyramid, and that
of Senwosret at el-Lahun was Senwosret is
Shining.
All Egyptian pyramids were built, without
exception, on the west bank of the Nile, which
as the site of the setting sun was associated
with the realm of the dead in Egyptian
mythology
Giza
Giza is the location of the Pyramid of Khufu
(also known as the "Great Pyramid" and the
"Pyramid of Cheops"), the somewhat smaller
Pyramid of Khafre (or Kephren), and the
relatively modest-sized Pyramid of
Menkaure (or Mykerinus), along with a
number of smaller satellite edifices, known
as Queen's pyramids, and the Great Sphinx.
Giza
Of the three, only Khafre's pyramid
retains part of its original polished
limestone casing, towards its apex.
This pyramid appears larger than the
adjacent Khufu pyramid by virtue of
its more elevated location, and the
steeper angle of inclination of its
construction — it is, in fact, smaller
in both height and volume.
The Giza Necropolis has been a popular
tourist destination since antiquity,
and was popularised in Hellenistic
times when the Great Pyramid was
listed by Antipater of Sidon as one of
the Seven Wonders of the World.
Today it is the only one of the ancient
Wonders still in existence.
Dahshur
The southern Pyramid of Sneferu, commonly known
as the Bent Pyramid is believed to be the first (or
by some accounts, second) attempt at creating a
pyramid with smooth sides. In this it was only a
partial — but nonetheless visually arresting —
success; it remains the only Egyptian pyramid to
retain a significant proportion of its original
limestone casing, and serves as the best
example of the luminous appearance common to
all pyramids in their original state.
Dahshur
The northern, or Red Pyramid built at the
same location by Sneferu was later
successfully completed as the world's
first true smooth-sided pyramid. Despite
its relative obscurity, the Red Pyramid is
actually the third largest pyramid in Egypt
— after the pyramids of Khufu and Khafre
at Giza. Also at Dahshur is the pyramid
known as the Black Pyramid of
Amenemhet III.