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Food Chains and Food Webs I. Autotrophs: Any organism that can make their own food. a. Photosynthesis b. Chemosynthesis Examples: algae, trees, grass, shrubs, blue-green bacteria II. Primary consumer: Also known as a herbivore. It is an animal that eats the producers. It is also a type of Heterotroph Examples: Mice, grasshoppers, rabbits, squirrels Zooplankton, aquatic invertebrates, water bugs III. Secondary Consumer: Can be either a carnivore or an omnivore, which eats both plants and animals. Examples: Armadillo, birds IV. Tertiary consumers: Are at the top of the food chain (or web). Examples: Birds of prey (hawks), wolves, bears, sharks, humans V. Decomposers: Help to break down dead matter so that the nutrients can be returned to the soil. Examples: fungi, bacteria, worms, maggots Trophic Levels: Represent each step in a food chain or energy pyramid. Producers: ALWAYS occupy the base of a food chain or energy pyramid. Consumers occupy the second, third and fourth level Energy Pyramid A way to represent how energy passes in the environment. The most energy is at the bottom The least energy at the top. 90% is lost as heat at each stage so only 10% is passed.