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Egypt's Old Kingdom
Chapter 2 Section 2
Old Kingdom 2600-2300 B.C.
Pharaohs appointed many officials
– Oversaw building projects, controlled trade and
collected taxes
Egyptians believed the unity of Egypt
depended on a strong leader
Pharaohs were considered to be the son of
Re: sun god
– believed pharaoh was a god on earth who
controlled Egypt's welfare
Famous Pharaohs of Old Kingdom
Egypt's Religion
-Egyptians were polytheistic
-Believed that the deities, or gods and
goddesses controlled the forces of nature and
human activities
Isis: represented
Hapi: god of the
the loyal wife
and mother, ruled
over death with
her husband
God of the Underworld
Cut into pieces by his
brother Seth
Put back together by his
wife Isis
Rules the afterlife
Jackal headed god
He guides the dead to
the underworld
God of mummification
Symbol of life
Wedjet Eye
Believed to be stolen
from Ra
Used to protect the
Earliest burial methods
Placing bodies in sand
and letting it dry
Mastabas= means
Life After Death
-Egyptians believed life -Book of the Dead:
in the next world
collection of spells
would be better
and prayers that was
studied to obtain life
-Place of peace and
after death
-Osiris would detemine
whether they would
be granted life after
Book of the Dead
Weighing of the Heart ceremony
Mummification Process
Process took 70 days
Remove brain through nose
Remove organs (not heart)
At first, only pharaohs and the
upper class could be afforded
a burial
Egyptians created the embalming
process: preserving the body for
Sterilize body and organs
Dehydrate organs, place them in canopic jars
Cover body with natron, leave for 40 days
Pack body with linen that has been soaked in
Learned about
human body.
resin, myrrh and cinnamon
Used herbs and
drugs to treat
Pack eye sockets with beeswax
Mummification Process con’t
Wrap mummy in 1,000 yards of linen, place
amulets between layers
Body is placed in coffin, then in sarcophagus
All is completed by using the Book of the Dead
Ka and Ba
Ka: Soul of a person
Ba: Always depicted
as a half human half
bird. Must be able to
recognize the
Example of canopic jars
Mummy of Ramses II
Mummy shaped figures
used in the tombs
Believed to do work for
the dead in the afterlife
Literally means flesh
eating stone
How Was a Pyramid Built?
-built by tens of thousands of workers
-farmers, surveyors, engineers, carpenters and
stone cutters
-because of pyramid building advancements
were made in astronomy and math
-study of the stars allowed Egyptians to determine
true north and develop a 365 day calendar with 12
-system of number based on 10
-created fractions
How did they get the stones up?
Stones were loaded onto a
sled/sledge. They were then placed
on log rollers and pulled up the ramp.
The logs were kept wet with water or
No mortar was needed between the
See Building the Pyramids Puzzle
worksheet for the steps of building.
Must have a solid base
Pyramids and tombs of ancient Egypt
Pyramid timeline
Step Pyramid of Saqqara
First pyramid built by
Pharaoh Djoser
204 feet tall
Designed by Imhotep
Tomb in the ground,
mastaba on top of
Bent Pyramid of Dashur
Built by Snefru
Unique because the angle
abruptly changes midway
through construction
Begins at 55 degrees then
goes to 43 degrees
Total height 344 feet
Reconstruction of Giza Plateau
Guardian of the plateau
Built by Khafre
Head of Khafre and body
of lion
The Sphinx
Pyramids of Giza
Three pyramids
Smaller wives pyramids were also found
Largest belonging to Khufu
Second and third= Khafre and Menkaure
482 feet tall
Contained 2.3 million stones, some weighing
as much as 2 ½ tons
Cross section of Khufu’s pyramid
Pyramids of Giza Video Check up
The average weight of each block used to
construct the Great Pyramid at Giza was
_____. (Choose only one answer)
1 ton
2.5 tons
200 pounds
1,000 pounds
Funeral boat of Khufu
This boat was
in a pit
outside of the
Pyramid. It
was believed
to carry the
body of Khufu
to his final
resting place.
End of the Old Kingdom
Pyramids were a financial drain on economy
Nobility experienced a rapid growth
Many more nobles wanted more power
Civil war breaks out with nobles fighting for power
over resources and support of lower classes
The Old Kingdom capital of Memphis is