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Transcript
Hubble’s planetary mission
Max Mutchler
STScI Research and Instrument Scientist
Bonnie Meinke
STScI Outreach Scientist
Hubble Science Briefing
2 April 2015
Hubble has been good for
planetary science – and vice versa
• Hubble is capable of observing almost any moving target
in the Solar System, with a quick response to transient
events
• Best of both worlds: Hubble has a strong history of
supporting (and sometimes inspiring) planetary missions
• Hubble’s superb sensitivity and resolution are ideal for
studying small Solar System bodies or features
• Important planetary observations have happened at
critical points in the Hubble mission
2
Moving targets
require special
tracking,
observation
planning, and
data processing
Jupiter
24 Jan 2015
3
Moving targets
require special
tracking,
observation
planning, and
data processing
Jupiter
24 Jan 2015
4
Pre-launch hype, delays, and ground system
development (including moving-target tracking)
5
6
HST launch on 24 April 1990
7
Hubble’s cameras
8
Hubble was deployed
and serviced by
the Space Shuttle
1990
1993
1997
1999
2002
2009
Launch
SM1
SM2
SM3A
SM3B
SM4
The Trouble with Hubble
9
This is the new era of astronomy?
10
11
12
Top Ten Hubble Telescope Excuses
10. The guy at Sears promised it would work fine.
9. Some kids on Earth must be fooling around with a garage door opener.
8. There's a little doohickey rubbing against the part that looks kind of like a cowboy hat.
7. See if you can think straight after 12 days of drinking Tang.
6. Bum with squeegee smeared lens at red light.
5. Blueprints drawn up by that "Hey Vern!” guy.
4. Those damn raccoons!
3. Shouldn't have used G.E. components.
2. Ran out of quarters.
13
1. Race of super-evolved galactic beings are screwing with us.
Solar System observations
helped fill the void until the first
HST Servicing Mission (SM1)
Despite bugs, breakdowns, and its
famous mirror flaw, Hubble still gives a
clear view of the cosmos - sometimes
14
NASA's Hubble Space Telescope Views Major Storm On Saturn
http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/archive/releases/solar-system/1991/04/
15
ESA Faint Object Camera (FOC) Images Pluto the "Double Planet"
http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/archive/releases/solar-system/1990/14/
16
Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 (SL9) is disrupted by
Jupiter, and on course for a collision in 1994!
The stage is set…
17
Hubble was deployed
and serviced by
the Space Shuttle
1990
1993
1997
1999
2002
2009
Launch
SM1
SM2
SM3A
SM3B
SM4
The comeback story begins
18
The first Hubble
Servicing Mission (SM1)
in Dec 1993 was
effectively a rescue
mission
19
WFPC2 was installed
Wide Field 2
(WF2)
Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2)
images had a strange shape due to the high
resolution planetary camera (PC)
Planetary Camera
(PC1)
Wide Field 3
(WF3)
Wide Field 4
(WF4)
20
Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 impacts Jupiter in July 1994,
providing a showcase for the repaired Hubble’s capabilities
21
22
Hubble observations
of Saturn 1996-2000
As Saturn takes its 29-year journey around
the Sun, its tilt allows us to see its rings
from different perspectives.
23
Hubble was deployed
and serviced by
the Space Shuttle
1990
1993
1997
1999
2002
2009
Launch
SM1
SM2
SM3A
SM3B
SM4
New instruments STIS and NICMOS provide ultraviolet
(UV) and infrared (IR) capability.
24
25
26
27
Hubble was deployed
and serviced by
the Space Shuttle
1990
1993
1997
1999
2002
2009
Launch
SM1
SM2
SM3A
SM3B
SM4
Getting the hardware up and running again
28
Hubble was deployed
and serviced by
the Space Shuttle
1990
1993
1997
1999
2002
2009
Launch
SM1
SM2
SM3A
SM3B
SM4
Advanced Camera for Surveys is installed, providing greater
sensitivity and resolution
29
Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS):
installed in 2002…failed in 2007… and partially
repaired in 2009
30
Advanced Camera for Surveys
Wide Field Planetary Camera 2
ACS / WFC
ACS / HRC (High Resolution Channel)
31
Hubble observations of
giant planets (and their
rings and moons)
Without probes exploring these planets, Hubble is
the best tool for exploring the outer solar system.
32
33
Monitoring Mars
34
Columbia
accident in 2003
Hubble SM4
cancelled in 2004
35
36
37
38
39
Hubble observations of dwarf planets Ceres and Pluto
See ASP article: http://astrosociety.org/edu/publications/tnl/70/pluto.html
Main Asteroid Belt
Discovered 1801-1851
Kuiper Belt
Discovered in 1992…or 1930 (Pluto)
Ceres
40
2005: Hubble images reveal two new moons of Pluto
41
Annette and Patsy Tombaugh
Jim Christy
Jim Christy
New Horizons launch
19 January 2006
42
2011-2012:
Hubble discovers two more
Pluto moons while looking for
hazards for the New Horizons
spacecraft
They were later named Styx
and Kerberos – despite the
suggestion from Captain Kirk
and Spock
2014:
Hubble discovers two
Kuiper Belt Objects that
New Horizons could fly by
after Pluto
See Hubble Science Briefing from 2012:
http://hubblesource.stsci.edu/services/events/telecons/
43
New Horizons spots Nix and Hydra orbiting Pluto
(“Better Than Hubble” date in late April or early May)
http://pluto.jhuapl.edu/News-Center/News-Article.php?page=20150218
44
Citation from IAU Minor Planet Circular 56612 on the naming of
Asteroid “6815 Mutchler”
45
46
dwarf planet
asteroid
(small solar system body)
47
Dawn mission to
Vesta and Ceres
Launched
September 27, 2007
See Google hangouts on YouTube
about Hubble observations of Vesta
and Ceres in support of Dawn:
“Dawn mission: Hubble inspired”
48
Dawn’s “Better Than Hubble” date for Ceres was 26 Jan 2015
Ceres
Vesta
49
2015 is the Year of the Dwarf Planets
Dawn
Ceres
2015
New
Horizons
Pluto
2015
Vesta
2011
Their spaceships have come in!
50
Hubble was deployed
and serviced by
the Space Shuttle
1990
1993
1997
1999
2002
2009
Launch
SM1
SM2
SM3A
SM3B
SM4
Since 2009, Hubble is better than ever and still a
workhorse for planetary exploration
51
Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3)
52
21 July 2009
53
Jupiter
reprises
its SM1
role!
54
Hubble observations of Comet ISON
See ASP article:
http://heritage.stsci.edu/2013/47/supplemental/ab2013-118-hubble-encounters-ison.pdf
55
56
Comet SW3 fragment B on 18 April 2006:
Hubble sensitivity and resolution
57
Comet SW3 fragment B on 19 April 2006:
Hubble sensitivity and resolution
58
Imaging C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) with the Hubble Space Telescope
Jian-Yang Li, Michael S.P. Kelley, Tony L. Farnham, Nalin H. Samarasinha, Carey M. Lisse, Michael F. A'Hearn,
Max J. Mutchler, and W. Alan Delamere, ACM Helsinki 2014
59
60
Will their
spaceship
come in?
Most Solar System objects
will be explored using only
Earth-based resources, until
those observations justify
new probes sent to explore
them in greater detail…
61
This graphic shows the location of water vapor detected over Europa's south pole that
provides the first strong evidence of water plumes erupting off Europa's surface.
Hubble didn't photograph plumes, but spectroscopically detected auroral emissions
from oxygen and hydrogen. The aurora is powered by Jupiter's magnetic field. The
image of Europa is derived from a global surface map generated from Voyager and
Galileo observations.
NASA/ESA/L. Roth (Southwest Research
Institute and University of Cologne, Germany)
Science Credit: NASA, ESA, L. Roth (Southwest Research Institute and University of Cologne, Germany), J. Saur (University of
Cologne, Germany), K. Retherford (Southwest Research Institute), D. Strobel and P. Feldman (Johns Hopkins University), 62
M. McGrath (Marshall Space Flight Center), and F. Nimmo (University of California, Santa Cruz)
This is an artist's concept of a
plume of water vapor thought to
be ejected off of the frigid, icy
surface of the Jovian moon
Europa, located 500 million miles
from the Sun.
Hubble Space Telescope
spectroscopic measurements
lead scientists to calculate that
the plume rises to an altitude of
125 miles and then probably
rains frost back onto the moon's
surface. Previous findings
already point to a subsurface
ocean under Europa's icy crust.
Artwork Credit: NASA, ESA, and K. Retherford
(Southwest Research Institute)
63
Observation of aurorae on Ganymede
provides evidence of subsurface ocean
64
Supplemental slides
65
Main Belt Comets (active asteroids)
See Hubble Science Briefing from Feb 2014:
http://hubblesource.stsci.edu/services/events/telecons/
66
Hubble now studies planets
beyond our Solar System:
Hubble Space Telescope
spectroscopic measurements
allow scientists to examine
atmospheres of exoplanets
We see Kuiper Belts and planets
around other stars.
67
James Webb Space Telescope (JWST)
68
Launch 2018