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Lecture 2
Hubble sequence
Galaxy classification
The role of star formation
About 6 new stars per year
are born in our Galaxy
GMCs contain: dark clouds, cores, Bok globules
GMC mass / solar mass ~ 105
 Oph
V380 Ori +
Dark clouds
Barnard 68
 Oph
Giant Molecular Cloud, 160 pc away
contains numerous dark clouds
H II regions
Bright ionized
hydrogen clouds,
illuminated by
type O,B stars
IRAS all sky survey in the infrared
8.5 kpc
Can you find
the sun?
Earlier ideas
More recent findings
V = GM(r)/r
From BT
From Ch.1 BT
Other galaxies M 31 Andromeda galaxy (Sb)
companions: M 32 (E2) (foreground object) & M 110 (E
(below M31)
M-object names
are from a catalogu
by Charles Messier
Hubble sequence (tuning fork diagram)
Similar classification
applies to other bandpasses
(near-IR, in this case)
but there’s no guarantee that
the morphological type will
be the same in the visible
(here Hubble sequence is
defined) and the other
wavelengths. On the contrary,
there are sometimes bars and rings
which are revealed only in the
UV, IR, or radio wavelengths.
Hubble sequence (tuning fork diagram)
De Vaucouleurs galaxy
extends the Hubble
scheme in orthogonal
directions, adding
more criteria
De Vaucouleurs galaxy
at Hubble type Sb)
Bulk Properties of Galaxies
Galaxy Type:
Spiral /Barred Spiral M=109 to 1011 Msun, L=108 to 1010 Lsun, Diameter=5-250 kpc
disk: Population I
halo:Population II
f=77% (f=Percentage of Observed Galaxies)
105 to 1013
105 to 1011
D= 1-205 kpc Population II
108 to 1010
107 to 109
D= 1-10 kpc
Population I
Some objects in/around galaxies are tiny
but almost as bright: supernovae, Active Galactic Nuclei,
Quasars (extreme AGNs)
a bright supernova
M 104
M 81
M 51 (Sc) + NGC 5195 (peculiar SBb?)
Are these colliding or is it just projection effect?
Can you say what type they are?
Criteria for distinguishing spirals along
the sequence of ‘early-type’ to ‘late-type’:
1. Bulge-to-disk light (mass) ratio,
size of the bulge
2. Prominence of spiral arms, arm-interarm contrast
3. Visibility and number of population I objects such as:
H II regions, OB associations, dark lanes of dust
4. Pitch angle (openness) of spiral arms