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CHAPTER TWO Transplantations and Borderlands FALL 2011 - NYCCT HISTORY 1110: U.S. HISTORY TO 1877 SECTIONS 6750 & 6752 BRENDAN O’MALLEY, INSTRUCTOR BO’[email protected] CHAPTER TWO Transplantations and Borderlands The Early Chesapeake What does the author of the textbook mean that English North America remained a “borderland” or “middle ground” in the 1600s? What other European powers had a presence in North American in the early 1600s? King James I issued a charter in 1606 giving two joint-stock companies the right to create colonies in North, America: the Plymouth Company and the London Company. Which succeeded? The charter gave the king formal ownership of the land, but the jointstock companies could be tenants. How was this different from Spanish colonization? What were the stated and unstated motivations to create settlements? CHAPTER TWO Transplantations and Borderlands The Founding of Jamestown Three small ships—Discovery, Susan Constant, and Godspeed—departed London on December 20, 1606, with 144 men. The ships first land in Virginia on April 26, 1607, a voyage of four and a half months (had to wait several weeks off England for favorable winds, then made stops in the Canaries and Caribbean). Forty men died during the voyage. The colony of Jamestown was established on May 14, 1607. No women had been sent on the voyage; the first two did not arrive until October 1608. The site selected for Jamestown was on a swamp. What effect did that have? Ships to resupply the colony arrived in January 1608 and found only 38 of the first 104 colonists. Captain John Smith had become president of the council in fall 1608, negotiated and intimidated Indians for food, and imposed order; he was largely responsible for anyone surviving the brutal winter. CHAPTER TWO Transplantations and Borderlands The Founding of Jamestown Captain John Smith (1580-1631) The captain of the three ships that brought the initial Jamestown colonists, Christopher Newport, thought Smith’s behavior on the voyage was mutinous, so he put him in chains and planned on executing him on arrival. But the London Company’s letter to be opened on arrival declared Smith one of the seven members of the leadership council of the colony, thus Newport had to spare him. There is considerable debate about where or not Smith’s account of Pocahontas saving his life is true. It is unlikely that they had a romantic relationship; she married the planter John Rolfe in 1614 and died in England in 1617. CHAPTER TWO Transplantations and Borderlands The Founding of Jamestown 1609: The London Company was renamed the Virginia Company, and set upon expansion, receiving a new royal charter with more land, and sent a colonial governor, Lord De La Warr. Planters who could pay their own passage over could receive company stock; poor people could seek their fortune by signing a seven-year indenture contract. The “Starving Time”: Winter 1609-1610 was a disaster because several supply ships failed to arrive and many colonist died of fever; Indians killed off the livestock, so the colonists ate dogs, rats, snakes, and even their own dead. A supply ship arriving in May 1610 found 60 emaciated survivors alive, and were about to set sail back home when Lord De La Warr’s fleet arrived. Planter John Rolfe introduces the first marketable crop in 1612. What was it? CHAPTER TWO Transplantations and Borderlands TOBACCO This 1595 image is the first known of a European smoking. The dried leaf was introduced in Spain by sailors in 1518, and gradually spread across the Continent. Europeans believed that tobacco could cure illness. By the time Jamestown was founded, tobacco was well on its way to attaining global popularity. CHAPTER TWO Transplantations and Borderlands John Smith’s map of Virginia, published in 1612. CHAPTER TWO Transplantations and Borderlands The Founding of Jamestown: The Tobacco Economy Cash Crop: After Rolfe started growing tobacco, it became clear that it would be very profitable. Dried tobacco travels fairly well. Interior Settlement: New planters had to move further inland as the crop requires large plots of land. The English thus pushed further into the interior along the James River, impinging deeper into Indian territory, setting off sporadic violence. Headright System: A new charter allowed the Virginia Company to give two “headrights”—100 acres—to those already in the colony, and one headright to newcomers. This encouraged the arrival of whole families. CHAPTER TWO Transplantations and Borderlands The Founding of Jamestown: Changes of 1619 Women: While a few women—mostly wives of colonists already there—had arrived before 1619, the company sent 100 that year to marry single male colonists and create social stability. Representative Government: Delegates from surrounding communities met as the House of Burgesses for the first time on July 30, 1619. Birth of American Slavery: In August 1619, “20 and odd Negroes” arrived on a Dutch warship and were sold to wealthier planters as “indentured servants” since slavery did not exist in English law until later. Not until the 1670s would planters begin to prefer African slaves over white indentured servants. CHAPTER TWO Transplantations and Borderlands The Founding of Jamestown: Conflict with the Indians Governor Sir Thomas Dale: Succeeding De La Warr as governor, Dale carried out assaults against the Powahatan Indians during the early 1610s. Pocohontas: Dale’s men captured the Powahatan chief’s daughter, Pocohontas. The chief’s real name was Wahunsonacock, but the English just called him Powahatan. She had mediated between the Europeans and Indians before, but her father refused to ransom her. She became a Christian and married planter John Rolfe in 1614, and in 1616 traveled with him to England, where she died a year later just as she was about to return to Virginia. Opechancanough: Powahatan stopped attacking the English with the marriage of his daughter to Rolfe, but a successor, Opechancanough, resumed attacks, including a bloody massacre of 347 white colonists in 1622. Charter Revoked: In part due to the Virginia Company’s inability to deal with the Indians, James I to revoked its charter in 1624, putting Virginia under direct control of the crown. CHAPTER TWO Transplantations and Borderlands Maryland and the Calverts • Sir George Calvert (1579-1632), First Lord Baltimore, asked James I for a charter for a colony to harbor English Catholics, but died in 1632 before negotiations were completed. • Calvert’s son, Cecilius (1605-1675)— pictured to the right—received the charter later in 1632, and outfitted two ships with 200-300 men to set sail, including his younger brother, Leonard, whom he chose to be governor. CHAPTER TWO Transplantations and Borderlands Maryland and the Calverts “Catholics Only” Policy Unprofitable: The Calverts had to attract more than just the small English Catholic minority to make the colony a financial success. The colony had a labor shortage from the beginning. House of Delegates: The Calverts allowed this representative body to be created in 1635, allowing a degree of self-government as in Virginia. Headright System: In 1640, Maryland adopted an even more generous headright system than Virginia , offering 100 acres for each male settlers, 100 for his wife and each servant, and 50 for each of his children. Maryland “Act Concerning Religion”: In 1649, the Maryland Assembly of Delegates passed an act of tolerance of most Christian religions (excepting ones that did not believe in a Holy Trinity, which Catholicism and more mainstream Protestantism both embrace) to attract non-Catholic colonists. It was too small to be profitable with only Catholics. CHAPTER TWO Transplantations and Borderlands GROWTH OF THE CHESAPEAKE, 1607 – 1750 Two Types of Governance: • Virginia under direct royal control (1624) • Maryland, North Carolina, and Northern Virginia under “proprietary” control of powerful English aristocrats who had been rewarded the territory by the monarch. CHAPTER TWO Transplantations and Borderlands Bacon’s Rebellion • Sir William Berkeley (1605 – 1677) ruled as colonial governor of governor of Virginia from 1642 to 1677. • Politics: The vote for House of Burgesses representatives was limited only to landholders in 1670; those in newly settled lands to the west (called “backcountry”) felt underrepresented compared to the powerful Eastern Tidewater merchants, and also resented Berkley’s refusal to use military force to push back the Indians and open up more land. Why might Berkeley refuse to to this? • Population: From 1640 to and 1660, Virginia’s population jumped from 8,000 to over 40,000 (largely because of indentured servants). CHAPTER TWO Transplantations and Borderlands Bacon’s Rebellion • A large-scale conflict on frontier erupted between settlers and natives in 1675, • • • • and Nathaniel Bacon, who owned a good-sized western farm, and many of his backcountry men demanded that Berkeley send a militia. When Berkeley refused, Bacon offered to put together a militia of backcountry men, but Berkeley refused. Bacon went ahead and organized a militia anyway, carrying out vicious but ineffective attacks against the Susquehannock, which made Berkeley declare Bacon and his men rebels, at which time Bacon led his men on two attacks against Jamestown, succeeding in burning it and driving Berkeley into exile on the second one. Bacon suddenly dies of dysentery on October 26, 1676, and the rebellion stalls. Consequences: United eastern and western elites; led to an increased reliance on African slave labor rather than European indentured servants. Slaves were not freed, and thus would not create an unpropertied and unstable class. CHAPTER TWO Transplantations and Borderlands THE GROWTH OF NEW ENGLAND - PLYMOUTH • Plymouth Company: Charter falls into disuse after first attempt to create a colony in present-day Maine in 1607 was abandoned after a year (the “Popham Colony”). • Scrooby Separatists: Congregation from the village of Scrooby in England illegally flee to Leyden, Holland, in 1608, since Holland had freedom of religious practice. By 1620, many were alarmed by their children adopting Dutch customs, and wanted to go found a new religious community in the New World. • Saints and Strangers: The group receives permission from Virginia Co. to settle in the company’s northern-most territory near the Hudson River, and 35 “saints” (members of the congregation) and 67 “strangers” make the journey. • Plymouth: Self-described “Pilgrims” sight what is now Cape Cod in November 1620, and make their way to the site of Plymouth. The 35 members of the congregation drew up the “Mayflower Compact” to set up self-governance before going ashore. • Pilgrim-Indian Relations: Half of the colonists die in the first winter, but the rest survive largely due to Indians providing furs and teaching them how to hunt game. • Commerce: Traded in fish and furs, as the soil around Plymouth was sandy and poor. Pilgrims remained poor for decades, sharing one plow between them even in the 1640s. CHAPTER TWO Transplantations and Borderlands THE GROWTH OF NEW ENGLAND: THE MASSACHUSETTS BAY EXPERIMENT • Persecution of Puritans by King Charles I: Charles, who took the throne on James’s death in 1625, intensified the persecution, and even dissolved Parliament for 11 years starting in 1629. • Massachusetts Bay Company Formed: Puritan merchants obtained a grant of land comprising what is now most of Massachusetts and New Hampshire, and acquired a charter from the king to form the Massachusetts Bay Company. Those wanting to create a refuge for Puritans bought out those who saw it as just an investment. Over 1630, Puritans sent 17 ships with 1,000, the largest migration of of its kind in the seventeenth century. • Boston Founded: The port of the Boston was made the capital, but many other settlements followed, including Charlestown, Newton (Cambridge), Roxbury, Dorchester, etc. (A small colony in Salem, founded in 1626 by Separatists, was incorporated into the bigger colony). • Family Migration: Unlike the Virginians, the Pilgrims and Puritans came as whole families. Although 100 people died the first winter, commitment remained strong. CHAPTER TWO Transplantations and Borderlands John Winthrop (1587-1649): First governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony who wrote of the Puritan colony as a “City on the Hill,” meaning a beacon of enlightenment for the world to see. Unlike the Pilgrims who wanted to separate from the Church of England, the Puritans hoped their example would help reform the Church. The Puritans were also considerably wealthier. The Puritans created a “theocracy,” meaning the Church and Government were indistinguishable. CHAPTER TWO Transplantations and Borderlands Pilgrims vs. Puritans PILGRIMS PURITANS Plymouth - 1620 Separatists from Church of England Came by way of Holland Smaller migration of just 107 people First Governor: William Bradford (1590-1657) Poorer than the Puritans; had worked menial jobs during the Holland exile. Boston - 1630 Wanted to reform Church of England; not separate from it Came directly from England Large migration: 17 ships carrying 1,000 in 1630 First Governor: John Winthrop (1587-1646) Fairly well-to-do merchants; their settlement was highly organized and well planned. CHAPTER TWO Transplantations and Borderlands THE GROWTH OF NEW ENGLAND Dissent and Expansion • Fundamental Orders of Connecticut: In 1635, Thomas Hooker (1586 – 1647) and his followers left Boston’s oppressive religious environment to found Hartford in the fertile Connecticut River Valley. On the other hand, the migrants who founded New Haven in 1639 felt that Boston Puritans were too lax in their worship. • Rhode Island: A minister from Salem, Rogers Williams (1603-1683), was a banished for being a Separatist, wanting Massachusetts Bay to cut ties with the Church of England, and also for preaching that the land belonged to the Indians. He created a colony that allowed absolute religious freedom, obtaining a charter from Parliament in 1644 to create a government similar to the one of Massachusetts, but with separation of church and state. CHAPTER TWO Transplantations and Borderlands THE GROWTH OF NEW ENGLAND Dissent and Expansion • Anne Hutchinson (1591-1643): John Winthrop characterized this charismatic Bostonian as “a woman of ready wit and bold spirit.” She greatly annoyed the Puritan fathers by preaching, leading a Sunday prayer group composed of both men and women, and generally not acting as they thought a Puritan woman should. She was deported for heresy in 1637 and moved to Rhode Island. She was widowed in 1642 and in 1643 took her family to what is now the Bronx, where they were all massacred in by Indians who were fighting the Dutch. • New Hampshire and Maine: Two proprietary land grants opened these areas for settlement in the 1620s, though they technically remained part of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Religious dissenters began to settle in the 1630s. New Hampshire broke off from Massachusetts in 1679, but Maine remained a part of it until it became a state in 1820. THE GROWTH OF NEW ENGLAND Conflict Between Settlers and Natives • Indians Aid in Survival and Commerce: Indians taught New Englanders to plant New World crops and hunt, and trade for animal skins became an important source of revenue. But the English hunger for land led to conflict. • Religious Belief of Natives as Heathens: New England religious leaders changed their view of Indians as helpers to heathens and barbarians who presented an obstacle to the establishment of their godly communities. Pequot War (1637): Bloody conflict in the Connecticut River Valley in which most of the Indians in the region are wiped out. Other tribes took aided the English in killing off the Pequots. CHAPTER TWO Transplantations and Borderlands THE GROWTH OF NEW ENGLAND King Philip’s War (1675-76) • The leader of the Wampanoag Confederacy, Metacomet (ca. 1639-1676), called King Philip by the English, had become sachem of this group of tribes after the death of his older brother, Wamsutta, who had maintained an uneasy truce with the colonists for the benefit of trade. • Metacomet distrusted the colonists and negotiated an alliance with many of the region’s tribes to undertake coordinated attacks beginning in 1675 and lasting through 1676 (with a few attcks in Maine in 1677). This campaign struck many Massachusetts towns, leaving over a thousand colonists dead. Indian attacks often came at night, and women and children were not spared. The Indians had the upper hand until Metacomet was killed in August 1676, when the alliance collapsed. CHAPTER TWO Transplantations and Borderlands THE GROWTH OF NEW ENGLAND King Philip’s War (1675-76) • Indians had adopted the new flintlock rifles more quickly than the colonists, many of whom still used older matchlock rifles (which actually used a mechanism that lowered a slow-burning match into the powder). The flintlock inflicted many casualties on both sides. • Indians also built many forts, including one stone fort based on English masonry techniques that some had learned. • A larger numbers of English colonists—probably about 80,000 in New England at the time—and their greater number of rifles were too much for the Indians, who had their numbers significantly thinned by outbreaks of disease. CHAPTER TWO Transplantations and Borderlands THE RESTORATION COLONIES The English Civil War, Commonwealth, and Restoration(1642-1660) • Charles I: The monarch dissolved Parliament in 1629 and begins ruling like an absolute monarch. Calls Parliament back in session in 1640 because he needed money. He dismisses Parliament twice in two years, greatly frustrating his opposition, who initiate a military struggle: the “Cavaliers” (supporters of the King) vs. “Roundheads” ( supporters of Parliament). • Roundhead Victory: The Parliamentary forces defeated the Royalists decisively in 1648, and shocked all of Europe by beheading the defiant Charles I in January 1649. • Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658): The Puritan leader of the Roundheads became England’s “Protector” and the government became a “Commonwealth.” Cromwell was pretty much a dictator, and his regime disintegrated after his death in 1658. • Charles II (1630-1685): When the son of Charles I assumed the throne in 1660, his rule became known as the “Restoration.” • Restoration Colonies: Charles II rewarded his loyal aristocratic supporters with land grants in North America, creating the colonies of Carolina, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. CHAPTER TWO: Transplantations and Borderlands THE RESTORATION COLONIES: The Carolinas • In two grants in 1663 and 1665, Charles II granted eight proprietors a massive territory stretching from the southern border of Virginia to the Florida peninsula; they named it “Carolina,” based on the Latin name for “Charles.” • Attempts to colonize the area failed and the proprietors quit trying except for Anthony Ashley Cooper (1621-1683), who convinced the other proprietors to fund a 1670 voyage that created the colony of Port Royal, and also a voyage in 1680 that created Charles Town, which became the colonial capital in 1690. • Cooper, who had been given the title Earl of Shaftesbury, and the philosopher John Locke (1632-1704) drew up the Fundamental Constitution for Carolina. It created a hierarchical society with the proprietors at the top, followed by a local aristocracy, ordinary settlers, poor whites, and then slaves. • Carolina did not develop in the orderly fashion that Cooper and Locke imagined. The north and south developed in different ways: egalitarian backwoods farmers in the north and a more stratified and aristocratic society emerged in the South, particularly with the coming of rice in 1660s. CHAPTER TWO: Transplantations and Borderlands THE RESTORATION COLONIES: The Carolinas • Southern Ties to Barbados: Early settlers of southern Carolina were mostly from overcrowded British Caribbean island of Barbados, where the use of African slaves was widespread. • Tensions in Carolinas: Small northern farmers resented the political clout of the wealthy planters in the south, and small farmers in the south also resented them. • End of Proprietary Rule: When Lord Shaftesbury (Cooper) died in 1683, the proprietors could not maintain order in the colony. In 1719, the colonists seized control away from the proprietors. In 1729, the king divided Carolina in two. CHAPTER TWO: Transplantations and Borderlands THE RESTORATION COLONIES: The Carolinas • In two grants in 1663 and 1665, Charles II granted eight proprietors a massive territory stretching from the southern border of Virginia to the Florida peninsula; they named it “Carolina,” based on the Latin name for “Charles.” • Attempts to colonize the area failed and the proprietors quit trying except for Anthony Ashley Cooper (1621-1683), who convinced the other proprietors to fund a 1670 voyage that created the colony of Port Royal, and also a voyage in 1680 that created Charles Town, which became the colonial capital in 1690. • Cooper, who had been given the title Earl of Shaftesbury, and the philosopher John Locke (1632-1704) drew up the Fundamental Constitution for Carolina. It created a hierarchical society with the proprietors at the top, followed by a local aristocracy, ordinary settlers, poor whites, and then slaves. • Carolina did not develop in the orderly fashion that Cooper and Locke imagined. The north and south developed in different ways: egalitarian backwoods farmers in the north and a more stratified and aristocratic society emerged in the South, particularly with the coming of rice in 1660s. THE RESTORATION COLONIES: The Quaker Colonies Pennsylvania & Delaware • The Quakers: Religious movement that developed in England in the mid- 1600s under the leadership of a shoemaker, George Fox (1624-1691). The Quakers—also known as the Society of Friends—rejected the Calvinist idea of predestination, believed all people had divinity within them, had no formal clergy, and were pacifists. They were despised in England and wanted a colony as a refuge, but could not get a royal grant. • William Penn (1644-1718): This wealthy son of an aristocratic admiral converted to Quakerism and was sent to prison for evangelizing. When his Penn’s father died, James II gave Penn an enormous land grant between New York and Maryland to pay off a debt the king owed to the elder Penn. He sailed to Pennsylvania in 1682 to personally watch over the building of its capital city, Philadelphia. He made sure to reimburse the Indians for their land. • Charter of Liberties: By the late 1690s, residents were tiring of the proprietorship, so Penn issued a Charter of Liberties in 1701 that established a representative assembly (consisting of just one house) and allowed Delaware to break away and form its own representative body in 1703 (although it still had the same governor as Pennsylvania until the Revolution). CHAPTER TWO: Transplantations and Borderlands BORDERLANDS AND MIDDLE GROUNDS: ENGLISH CARIBBEAN • Importance of the English Caribbean: With the Dutch and Spanish at war in the 1620s, the English seized Caribbean islands and colonized more while the others were distracted: Antigua, St. Kitts, Jamaica, Barbados, etc. • Shift to Sugar: The English in the Caribbean experimented with tobacco and cotton, but soon found sugar to be most profitable, leading to a greater reliance on African slave labor, who greatly outnumbered the English by the late 1600s. • Masters and Slaves: Outnumbered, white slave owners instilled intense discipline and physical intimidation to keep order and maintain control. The harsh climate and brutal working conditions killed slaves off within a few years. Slaves did manage to sustain African cultural traditions, especially music and religion. CHAPTER TWO: Transplantations and Borderlands SOUTHWEST BORDERLANDS • Spanish borderlands in North America—Florida, Texas, New • • • • Mexico, Arizona, and New Mexico—were all of relatively minor economic importance to the Spanish empire. By the end of the 1700s, New Mexico had 10,000 non-Indian settlers. In the 1760s, the Spanish governor of Baja California was ordered to create forts up the California coast called presidios, building ones in San Francisco in 1776 and Los angeles in 1786. Spanish feared the French coming down from the north, and created new forts in Texas to assert their claim, creating San Fernando (later San Antonio) in 1731. Overall, Spanish North American colonies were sparsely populated and dedicated to making Indians converts to Catholicism. CHAPTER TWO: Transplantations and Borderlands SOUTHEAST BORDERLANDS • Spanish threat to the English coming from the southeast: Florida and what is now coastal Georgia. • Spanish had claimed the area since the 1660s, building St. Augustine in 1565. • No formal war, but considerable tensions: English pirates sacked St. Augustine in 1668; English encouraged Indians to rise up against Spanish missions, and Spanish offered freedom to African slaves who fled from the English. • The English eventually gained Florida in the aftermath of the Seven Year’s War, which ended in 1763. CHAPTER TWO: Transplantations and Borderlands THE FOUNDING OF GEORGIA •General James Oglethorpe (1696-1785), a veteran of war with Spain, understood the value of having a buffer between the Spanish in Florida and the Carolinas. •Oglethorpe envisioned his colony as a place where the English poor could make a new life, becoming farmer-soldiers. •King George II gave him a grant in 1732 and he led the expedition himself in 1733. Africans and Catholics were not allowed in the colony since Oglethorpe thought they might ally themselves with the Spanish. •As the Spanish threat dissipated, Oglethorpe lost his grip and Georgia slowly became like other British colonies with an elected assembly and a significant degree of self-government. CHAPTER TWO: Transplantations and Borderlands MIDDLE GROUNDS • Some places were settled quickly by the English and were not middle grounds, namely Virginia and New England. • What do we mean by “middle ground”? A place where no one power is dominant, or if it is, its grasp on power is tenuous. The English and Indians lived to gather in many places for many years in which neither side appeared to be dominant: peripheries of empire where protection was not so strong. • Without strong protection, local colonists needed to negotiate their own relationship with Indians. • The French, in sparsely populated Canada, seemed well suited to carving out relationships with Indians for trade, with some traders even marrying into tribes. • With the English, the balance of power had begun to change in the later 1700s, when the population of colonists began to take off. CHAPTER TWO: Transplantations and Borderlands DEVELOPMENT OF EMPIRE • Regulating Colonial Trade: Parliament first tried to regulate colonial trade with a 1650s law forbidding Dutch ships from entering English colonial ports. • Navigation Acts: These three acts passed by Parliament from 1660 to 1673 required that colonial ports only trade with English ships and ports, and provided for customs officials to enforce the Acts. • Dominion of New England: London officials wanted to create a more centralized form of government not as tied to local assemblies. In 1685, James II came to the thrown and combined the governments of the New England colonies, as well as New York and New Jersey, and appointed Edmund Andros as new governor of the combined territory. The move was highly unpopular. CHAPTER TWO: Transplantations and Borderlands DEVELOPMENT OF EMPIRE • The “Glorious Revolution”: The Catholic James II’s attempts to control Parliament and appoint Catholic officials alienated him from the mainstream. Parliament offered his Protestant daughter, Mary, and her husband, William of Orange, to take the throne. James II fled without a struggle. • Reaction in the Colonies: When Bostonians heard that James II fled, they arrested the unpopular Andros. The new joint sovereigns did away with the Dominion and had them revert to earlier colonial governments. They did, however, merge the colonies of Massachusetts and Plymouth in 1691. • Jacob Leisler (1640-1691): Andros’s lieutenant governor in New York, Francis Nicholson, was favored by the wealthy merchants. Less well-to-do New Yorkers, like German immigrant Jacob Leisler, resented him and formed a militia to drive him into exile, which he managed to do for two years. A new governor appointed by William and Mary came in 1691 and put Leisler on trial for treason. He was found guilty and executed. • William & Mary: Their changes strengthened imperial authority rather than weaken it.