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Section 1 Essential Question How did the British gain French Territory in North America? To begin answering this question, -Understand what caused war between Britain and France. -Find out why British generals suffered early defeats. -Learn about the Battle of Quebec and the Treaty of Paris. Competing Empires • In the middle of the 18th century, France and England had competing claims for land in North America. • The French began building forts to protect their land claim to the Ohio River valley. • The French held trapping and trade routes in the Ohio Valley. • The English colonies were encroaching on French territory as their population grew. • They also competed over trade issues with the Native Americans in the disputed region. Competing European Claims The French and Indian War Begins -In 1753, the French began building forts to protect their claim to the Ohio River valley. The Virginia Colony also claimed the land. -The governor of Virginia sent soldiers led by George Washington, to build a fort where the Ohio River forms. -But the French were already building Fort Duquesne at the spot. -A large French army forced Washington and his men to return to Virginia. The Battle of Fort Necessity • • • • Young George Washington The French set up forts along to protect their fur trading interests. Some of these forts conflicted with English claims. Virginia Governor Dinwiddie dispatched a young George Washington in 1753 to deliver a protest to the French. This protest was ignored. The British sent a party to construct a fort on the site of modern Pittsburg. The Battle of Fort Necessity • • • The force was driven off by the French who, in turn, constructed Fort Duquesne on the site. The next year, Dinwiddie turned to Washington to expel the French from the site. Washington was quickly overwhelmed by superior French and Native American numbers. Washington had to retreat to the hastily constructed Fort Necessity, which he had to surrender shortly there after. This incident was a prelude to the French and Indian War. The Albany Congress • In 1754, war was inevitable. • The colonies sent delegates to Albany to discuss strategy for common defense. • They approved a document written by Benjamin Franklin promoting a substructure of government below British authority to govern the colonies. • The council would be comprised of elected representatives from each colony and headed by a President-General appointed by the crown. • The colonies were not ready for political union and it is unlikely "Join or Die" (1754) published by that the British government would have supported the plan. Franklin is considered the first political cartoon of the colonies. Why were the British concerned about French activity in the Ohio River valley? The British also claimed the Ohio River valley. Early British Defeats • In July 1755, the British sent a force led by British Commander General Edward Braddock from Virginia to attack Fort Duquesne. • Braddock did not know the fighting styles of Native Americans, and the bigger force was defeated by the smaller French force and their Native American allies. • Both the British commander, Braddock, and the French commander Beaujeu, were killed. • 23 year old George Washington won accolades for rallying the defeated British and preventing the battle from turning into a rout. • The first two years of fighting were characterized by humiliating defeats for the British. The Seven Years War in Europe • The French and Indian War was essentially the North American theatre of a larger conflict, the Seven Years War, in Europe. • Britain, Prussia, and Hanover fought against an alliance of France, Austria, Saxony, Russia, Sweden and Spain. • Prime Minister Pitt of England provided subsidies to Prussia to fight in Europe and committed British troops and resources to winning the war against the French in North America. • The European phase of the war lasted from 1757 to 1763. What fatal errors did General Edward Braddock make? He tried to fight using tactics that worked in Europe and did not adapt to North American conditions. The British Turn the Tide • In 1757, expansion advocate William Pitt became the British Prime Minister and vowed to lead country to victory. • Pitt concentrated on: – expelling the French from North America – buying the cooperation by the colonists by stimulating the North American economy with a massive infusion of British currency – buying the support of the Native Americans with promises of fixed territorial boundaries. The British Turn the Tide (cont) • In 1758, Britain captured the fort at Louisbourg and then Fort Duquesne. • These two victories, followed by others, convinced the Iroquois to ally with the British. • With growing confidence, Britain prepared to attack the city of Quebec, the capital of New France. • The British conquered Quebec in 1759. The British Turn the Tide (cont) • In 1760, they captured Montreal. • Without Quebec, France could not defend the rest of its territories. • In the final years of the war, the British defeated the French Navy and took French colonies in the Caribbean. • The French Empire in North America came to an end. French Defeat The Treaty of Paris • The 1763 Treaty of Paris ended the French and Indian War. • The French transferred its claims west of the Mississippi to Spain and ceded its territory east of the Mississippi to the British. • The British also received Spanish Florida. New Orleans, along with all French territory west of the Mississippi, went to Spain The Treaty of Paris What was the outcome of the Battle of Quebec? The British defeated the French, who were no longer able to defend the rest of their North American territory.. Section 1 Essential Question How did the British gain French Territory in North America? The British gained control of French territory in North America with military victories during the French and Indian War.