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Section 1 Essential Question
How did the British gain French Territory
in North America?
To begin answering this question,
-Understand what caused war between
Britain and France.
-Find out why British generals suffered
early defeats.
-Learn about the Battle of Quebec and the
Treaty of Paris.
Competing Empires
• In the middle of the 18th
century, France and England
had competing claims for
land in North America.
• The French began building
forts to protect their land
claim to the Ohio River
• The French held trapping
and trade routes in the Ohio
• The English colonies were
encroaching on French
territory as their population
• They also competed over
trade issues with the Native
Americans in the disputed
Competing European Claims
The French and Indian
War Begins
-In 1753, the French began building forts to
protect their claim to the Ohio River valley. The
Virginia Colony also claimed the land.
-The governor of Virginia sent soldiers led by
George Washington, to build a fort where the
Ohio River forms.
-But the French were already building Fort
Duquesne at the spot.
-A large French army forced Washington and his
men to return to Virginia.
The Battle of Fort Necessity
Young George Washington
The French set up forts along to
protect their fur trading interests.
Some of these forts conflicted with
English claims.
Virginia Governor Dinwiddie
dispatched a young George
Washington in 1753 to deliver a
protest to the French. This protest
was ignored.
The British sent a party to
construct a fort on the site of
modern Pittsburg.
The Battle of Fort Necessity
The force was driven off by the French who, in turn, constructed Fort
Duquesne on the site.
The next year, Dinwiddie turned to Washington to expel the French from the
site. Washington was quickly overwhelmed by superior French and Native
American numbers.
Washington had to retreat to the hastily constructed Fort Necessity, which
he had to surrender shortly there after. This incident was a prelude to the
French and Indian War.
The Albany Congress
• In 1754, war was inevitable.
• The colonies sent delegates to
Albany to discuss strategy for
common defense.
• They approved a document
written by Benjamin Franklin
promoting a substructure of
government below British
authority to govern the colonies.
• The council would be comprised
of elected representatives from
each colony and headed by a
President-General appointed by
the crown.
• The colonies were not ready for
political union and it is unlikely
"Join or Die" (1754) published by that the British government would
have supported the plan.
Franklin is considered the first
political cartoon of the colonies.
Why were the British concerned about
French activity in the Ohio River valley?
The British also claimed the Ohio River
Early British Defeats
• In July 1755, the British sent a
force led by British Commander
General Edward Braddock from
Virginia to attack Fort Duquesne.
• Braddock did not know the fighting
styles of Native Americans, and
the bigger force was defeated by
the smaller French force and their
Native American allies.
• Both the British commander,
Braddock, and the French
commander Beaujeu, were killed.
• 23 year old George Washington
won accolades for rallying the
defeated British and preventing the
battle from turning into a rout.
• The first two years of fighting were
characterized by humiliating
defeats for the British.
The Seven Years War in Europe
• The French and Indian War was essentially the North American
theatre of a larger conflict, the Seven Years War, in Europe.
• Britain, Prussia, and Hanover fought against an alliance of
France, Austria, Saxony, Russia, Sweden and Spain.
• Prime Minister Pitt of England provided subsidies to Prussia to
fight in Europe and committed British troops and resources to
winning the war against the French in North America.
• The European phase of the war lasted from 1757 to 1763.
What fatal errors did General Edward
Braddock make?
He tried to fight using tactics that worked
in Europe and did not adapt to North
American conditions.
The British Turn the Tide
• In 1757, expansion advocate
William Pitt became the British
Prime Minister and vowed to lead
country to victory.
• Pitt concentrated on:
– expelling the French from North
– buying the cooperation by the
colonists by stimulating the
North American economy with a
massive infusion of British
– buying the support of the
Native Americans with
promises of fixed territorial
The British Turn the Tide (cont)
• In 1758, Britain captured the fort at Louisbourg and then
Fort Duquesne.
• These two victories, followed by others, convinced the
Iroquois to ally with the British.
• With growing confidence, Britain prepared to attack the
city of Quebec, the capital of New France.
• The British conquered Quebec in 1759.
The British Turn the Tide (cont)
• In 1760, they captured Montreal.
• Without Quebec, France could not defend the rest of its
• In the final years of the war, the British defeated the
French Navy and took French colonies in the Caribbean.
• The French Empire in North America came to an end.
French Defeat
The Treaty of Paris
• The 1763 Treaty of Paris ended the French and
Indian War.
• The French transferred its claims west of the
Mississippi to Spain and ceded its territory east
of the Mississippi to the British.
• The British also received Spanish Florida. New
Orleans, along with all French territory west of
the Mississippi, went to Spain
The Treaty of Paris
What was the outcome of the Battle of
The British defeated the French, who
were no longer able to defend the rest of
their North American territory..
Section 1 Essential Question
How did the British gain French Territory
in North America?
The British gained control of French
territory in North America with military
victories during the French and Indian