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Transcript
STANDARD: Examine the causes for
revolution, the course of the war and
evaluate the results.
Opening:
Turn Ch. 6/7
HW Questions
in.
Test Analysis
Work Period:
Britain Asserts
Her PowerFrench and
Indian War
PPT/Lecture
Closing:
Relay Essay: Describe the French and
Indian War.
Chapter 6
The Duel for North America
 Like England and Holland, France
was a latecomer in the race for
colonies. Until the Edict of Nantes
(limited toleration to Fr. Protestants)
in 1598, France was convulsed by
religious wars.
 The Sun King Louis XIV took a great
interest in overseas colonies.
 The French settlers allied themselves
with the Huron tribes and fought
against the British backed Iroquois.
The French
In 1524 Giovanni da Verrazano explored the
Atlantic coast between Florida and Newfoundland
and established relationships with Native American
fur-trapping tribes
In 1534 Jacques Cartier sailed the Lawrence
river, solidified those relationships and created
new ones with other Native American tribes
Although the French tried to settle in Florida
they were stopped by the Spanish
Initially the French fished in the Atlantic for cod
and salmon but fur trading yielded bigger profits
Jacques Cartier
The fur trade necessitated few settlers at first
but by the mid 1600s the French controlled the
interior of North America
3
New France and Louisiana far exceeded the size of the British
colonies in area, but the area was extremely under-populated. By
1760, only 80,000 lived in New France, compared to over a million
in the English colonies.
4
Samuel de Champlain
was the founder of
Quebec City, the first
permanent French
settlement in North
America.
Other French explorers
French priest Jacques Marquette and fur
trader Louis Joliet explored the Great
Lakes and upper Mississippi River Valley
LaSalle
explored the
lower
Mississippi
River, claiming
the entire
valley for
France, naming
it “Louisiana”
in honor of
Louis XIV
5
The coureurs de bois (runners
of the woods)
Frenchmen that traded with the Hurons,
especially the beaver and otter trade.
The French established trading forts in
New France and throughout Louisiana.
7
Life in the French Colonies
In most of the French colonies, the tendency was for the settlers to merge their
culture with the Indians. In this drawing, white settlers and Indians relaxed
together at Vincennes, a French settlement established in the 1720s in what
would be later known as the state of Indiana.
8
Differences between French and British
colonies
New France was more than double the size of British
Colonies, yet much less populated
British more interested in bringing settlers in from
the mother country, French more interested in making
Native Americans French citizens. They tended to treat
Indians as equals and intermarried.
French more interested in exploiting new lands
economically
French tended to develop stronger alliances with
Indians
9
France v. England 1689-1763
The Four Wars For Empire
Decided The Fate of Colonial North America
 King William’s War 1689-1697 or War
of the League of Augsburg….ended
with Treaty of Ryswick
 Queen Anne’s War 1702-1713 or War
of Spanish Succession…ended with
Treaty of Utrecht
 King George’s War 1744-1748 or War
of Austrian Succession….ended with
Treaty of Aachen (began as The War of
Jenkins’s Ear over trade rights in
Caribbean)
 French and Indian War or Seven Year’s
War 1754-1763…ended with Treaty of
Paris
The first three wars were fought mainly in the European
theater and on the Colonial Frontier. Colonist fought
alongside their ENGLISH BROTHERS.
THE COLONIST ATTACKED NEW FRANCE TWICE, INCLUDING
LOUISBOURG AND MONTREAL AND QUEBEC.
The French and Indian War
1754-1763
Disputed land claims in Western Pennsylvania in 1754
brought two of the greatest world powers to a conflict
that spread in both the New World and in Europe.
12
North America in 1750
1754  The First Clash
The
Ohio Valley
British
Fort Necessity
* George Washington
French
Fort Duquesne
* Delaware & Shawnee
Indians
1754  Albany Plan of
Union
Ben Franklin  representatives from
New England, NY, MD, PA
to come up with a plan for unity
A
Albany Congress  failed Iroquois
broke off relations with
Britain & threatened to
trade with the French.
1755  Br. Decides to
Eliminate Fr. Presence
in No. Amer.
Gen. Edward Braddock  evict the
French from the OH Valley & Canada
(Newfoundland & Nova Scotia)
A Attacks OH Valley, Mohawk Valley,
& Acadia.
A
Killed 10 mi. from Ft. Duquesne 
by 1500 French and Indian forces.
Only Br. Success  expelled France
from Louisiana.
CAJUNS
1756  War Is Formally
Declared!
Lord
Loudouin
Marquis
de Montcalm
Native American tribes
exploited both sides!
18
Duquesne was claimed by the French and the
British
Duquesne (modern day Pittsburgh) was
located at the convergence of three
major rivers, the Ohio, the Allegheny,
and the Monongahela.
Long seen by both the French and
British as the key to the rich farmlands
and settlement opportunities in the
Ohio River Valley, both France and
England laid claim to the area.
When the British found that the fort
had been built, a young officer by the
name of George Washington was
dispatched to warn the French to get
out of the area.
19
Fort Necessity
George Washington, a 22 year old militia officer, was sent by the
British to deliver the ultimatum to the French. Washington
constructed an outpost approximately 60 miles from Duquesne called
“Fort Necessity”
20
Attack at Jumonville Glen
 The first skirmish between the French
and Washington’s men took place not far
from the fort.
 Washington and Indian allies attacked
a French position at a location known as
Jumonville Glen. Within a few minutes,
10 Frenchmen were killed and 21
wounded.
"I fortunately escaped without any wound,
for the right wing, where I stood, was
exposed to and received all the enemy's
fire, and it was the part where the man was
killed, and the rest wounded. I heard the
bullets whistle, and, believe me there is
something charming in the sound."
--George Washington
 A few days later the French retaliated
against Washington’s position, and
Washington surrendered Fort Necessity.
 Washington became embroiled in
controversy because the surrender
document written by an interpreter
incorrectly deemed the French
diplomats instead of combatants, making
Washington a murderer.
21
British attack on Fort Duquesne
 The next year in 1755, British General Edward
Braddock was ordered to attack the French
stronghold at Fort Duquesne. Assigned as his
aide was George Washington.
 Braddock and his 1500 men were confident
they could take the fort, but they were
ambushed outside the gates by French soldiers
and their Native American allies.
 During the battle, Braddock and his staff were
killed with the exception of Washington.
 The British defeat at Fort Duquesne was only
the first of many losses suffered during the
period of 1755-1756.
22
Prime Minister William Pitt
The French were initially
victorious over the British
military. However this changed
dramatically when King George
III picked new leaders to run the
British government.
William Pitt, as prime minister,
put together a massive army of
50,000 men to fight the French,
but had to borrow a large
amount of money to do so.
23
British-American
Colonial Tensions
Colonials
Methods of
Fighting:
British
• Indian-style guerilla • March in formation or
bayonet charge.
tactics.
Military
• Col. militias served
Organization: under own captains.
• Br. officers wanted to
take charge of colonials.
Military
Discipline:
• No mil. deference or
protocols observed.
• Drills & tough
discipline.
Finances:
• Resistance to rising
taxes.
• Colonists should pay
for their own defense.
Demeanor:
• Casual,
non-professionals.
• Prima Donna Br.
officers with servants
& tea settings.
1757  William Pitt
Becomes Foreign Minister
A
He understood colonial concerns.
A
He offered them a compromise:
- col. loyalty & mil. cooperation-->Br.
would reimburse col. assemblies for
their costs.
- Lord Loudoun would be removed.
RESULTS?  Colonial morale
increased by 1758.
1758-1761  The Tide
Turns for England
* By 1761, Sp. has become an ally of Fr.
Battle of Quebec
Wolfe (British)
The commanders
Montcalm (French)
27
The Battle of Quebec
The battle was fought outside the city of Quebec on the “Plains
of Abraham”
Wolfe had 4800 men under his command, Montcalm, 4000
Wolfe’s men scaled cliffs protecting the city and surprised
Montcalm. Montcalm could have evacuated the city, but elected
instead to fight Wolfe’s men
British losses in the battle were 58 killed, 600 wounded
French losses were 644 men killed or wounded
Both Wolfe and Montcalm were killed in the battle
Battle ended in a decisive British victory
28
The British victory caused the French to surrender
Benjamin West painted this portrait of the death of Wolfe
29
1763  Treaty of Paris
France --> lost her Canadian possessions,
most of her empire in India, and claims
to lands east of the Mississippi River.
Spain --> got all French lands west of
the Mississippi River, New Orleans, but
lost Florida to England.
England --> got all French lands in
Canada, exclusive rights to Caribbean
slave trade, and commercial dominance
in India.
North America in 1763
Effects of the War
on Britain?
1. It increased her colonial empire in
the Americas.
2. It greatly enlarged England’s debt.
3. Britain’s contempt for the colonials
created bitter feelings.
Therefore, England felt that a
major reorganization of her
American Empire was necessary!
Effects of the War on the
American Colonials
1. It united them against a
common enemy for the first
time.
2. It created a socializing
experience for all the
colonials who participated.
3. It created bitter feelings
towards the British that
would only intensify.
The Aftermath: Tensions
Along the Frontier
1763  Pontiac’s Rebellion
Fort Detroit
British “gifts” of smallpox-infected
blankets from Fort Pitt.
Pontiac’s Rebellion (1763)
BACKLASH!
British  Proclamation
Line of 1763.
Colonials  Paxton Boys (PA)
MERCANTILISM: AN
ECONOMIC SYSTEM IN
WHICH NATIONS SEEK TO
INCREASE THEIR WEALTH
BY OBTAINING GOLD &
SILVER AND WITH A
FAVORABLE BALANCE OF
TRADE
MERCANTILISM
George Grenville’s
Program, 1763-1765
1. Sugar Act - 1764
2. Currency Act - 1764
3. Quartering Act - 1765
4. Stamp Act - 1765
Theories of
Representation
Real Whigs
Q-> What was the extent of Parliament’s
authority over the colonies??
Absolute?
OR
Limited?
Q-> How could the colonies give or
withhold consent for parliamentary
legislation when they did not have
representation in that body??
Stamp Act Crisis
Loyal Nine - 1765
Sons of Liberty – began in
NYC:
Samuel
Adams
Stamp Act Congress – 1765
* Stamp Act Resolves
Declaratory Act – 1766
Townshend Duties
Crisis: 1767-1770
1767  William Pitt, P. M. & Charles
Townshend, Secretary of
the Exchequer.
A Shift from paying taxes for Br. war
debts & quartering of troops 
paying col. govt. salaries.
A
A
A
He diverted revenue collection from
internal to external trade.
Tax these imports  paper, paint,
lead, glass, tea.
Increase custom officials at
American ports  established a
Board of Customs in Boston.
Colonial Response to
the Townshend Duties
1. John Dickinson  1768
* Letters from a Farmer in
Pennsylvania.
2. 1768  2nd non-importation
movement:
* “Daughters of Liberty”
* spinning bees
3. Riots against customs agents:
* John Hancock’s ship, the
Liberty.
* 4000 British troops sent
to Boston.