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STANDARD: Examine the causes for revolution, the course of the war and evaluate the results. Opening: Turn Ch. 6/7 HW Questions in. Test Analysis Work Period: Britain Asserts Her PowerFrench and Indian War PPT/Lecture Closing: Relay Essay: Describe the French and Indian War. Chapter 6 The Duel for North America Like England and Holland, France was a latecomer in the race for colonies. Until the Edict of Nantes (limited toleration to Fr. Protestants) in 1598, France was convulsed by religious wars. The Sun King Louis XIV took a great interest in overseas colonies. The French settlers allied themselves with the Huron tribes and fought against the British backed Iroquois. The French In 1524 Giovanni da Verrazano explored the Atlantic coast between Florida and Newfoundland and established relationships with Native American fur-trapping tribes In 1534 Jacques Cartier sailed the Lawrence river, solidified those relationships and created new ones with other Native American tribes Although the French tried to settle in Florida they were stopped by the Spanish Initially the French fished in the Atlantic for cod and salmon but fur trading yielded bigger profits Jacques Cartier The fur trade necessitated few settlers at first but by the mid 1600s the French controlled the interior of North America 3 New France and Louisiana far exceeded the size of the British colonies in area, but the area was extremely under-populated. By 1760, only 80,000 lived in New France, compared to over a million in the English colonies. 4 Samuel de Champlain was the founder of Quebec City, the first permanent French settlement in North America. Other French explorers French priest Jacques Marquette and fur trader Louis Joliet explored the Great Lakes and upper Mississippi River Valley LaSalle explored the lower Mississippi River, claiming the entire valley for France, naming it “Louisiana” in honor of Louis XIV 5 The coureurs de bois (runners of the woods) Frenchmen that traded with the Hurons, especially the beaver and otter trade. The French established trading forts in New France and throughout Louisiana. 7 Life in the French Colonies In most of the French colonies, the tendency was for the settlers to merge their culture with the Indians. In this drawing, white settlers and Indians relaxed together at Vincennes, a French settlement established in the 1720s in what would be later known as the state of Indiana. 8 Differences between French and British colonies New France was more than double the size of British Colonies, yet much less populated British more interested in bringing settlers in from the mother country, French more interested in making Native Americans French citizens. They tended to treat Indians as equals and intermarried. French more interested in exploiting new lands economically French tended to develop stronger alliances with Indians 9 France v. England 1689-1763 The Four Wars For Empire Decided The Fate of Colonial North America King William’s War 1689-1697 or War of the League of Augsburg….ended with Treaty of Ryswick Queen Anne’s War 1702-1713 or War of Spanish Succession…ended with Treaty of Utrecht King George’s War 1744-1748 or War of Austrian Succession….ended with Treaty of Aachen (began as The War of Jenkins’s Ear over trade rights in Caribbean) French and Indian War or Seven Year’s War 1754-1763…ended with Treaty of Paris The first three wars were fought mainly in the European theater and on the Colonial Frontier. Colonist fought alongside their ENGLISH BROTHERS. THE COLONIST ATTACKED NEW FRANCE TWICE, INCLUDING LOUISBOURG AND MONTREAL AND QUEBEC. The French and Indian War 1754-1763 Disputed land claims in Western Pennsylvania in 1754 brought two of the greatest world powers to a conflict that spread in both the New World and in Europe. 12 North America in 1750 1754 The First Clash The Ohio Valley British Fort Necessity * George Washington French Fort Duquesne * Delaware & Shawnee Indians 1754 Albany Plan of Union Ben Franklin representatives from New England, NY, MD, PA to come up with a plan for unity A Albany Congress failed Iroquois broke off relations with Britain & threatened to trade with the French. 1755 Br. Decides to Eliminate Fr. Presence in No. Amer. Gen. Edward Braddock evict the French from the OH Valley & Canada (Newfoundland & Nova Scotia) A Attacks OH Valley, Mohawk Valley, & Acadia. A Killed 10 mi. from Ft. Duquesne by 1500 French and Indian forces. Only Br. Success expelled France from Louisiana. CAJUNS 1756 War Is Formally Declared! Lord Loudouin Marquis de Montcalm Native American tribes exploited both sides! 18 Duquesne was claimed by the French and the British Duquesne (modern day Pittsburgh) was located at the convergence of three major rivers, the Ohio, the Allegheny, and the Monongahela. Long seen by both the French and British as the key to the rich farmlands and settlement opportunities in the Ohio River Valley, both France and England laid claim to the area. When the British found that the fort had been built, a young officer by the name of George Washington was dispatched to warn the French to get out of the area. 19 Fort Necessity George Washington, a 22 year old militia officer, was sent by the British to deliver the ultimatum to the French. Washington constructed an outpost approximately 60 miles from Duquesne called “Fort Necessity” 20 Attack at Jumonville Glen The first skirmish between the French and Washington’s men took place not far from the fort. Washington and Indian allies attacked a French position at a location known as Jumonville Glen. Within a few minutes, 10 Frenchmen were killed and 21 wounded. "I fortunately escaped without any wound, for the right wing, where I stood, was exposed to and received all the enemy's fire, and it was the part where the man was killed, and the rest wounded. I heard the bullets whistle, and, believe me there is something charming in the sound." --George Washington A few days later the French retaliated against Washington’s position, and Washington surrendered Fort Necessity. Washington became embroiled in controversy because the surrender document written by an interpreter incorrectly deemed the French diplomats instead of combatants, making Washington a murderer. 21 British attack on Fort Duquesne The next year in 1755, British General Edward Braddock was ordered to attack the French stronghold at Fort Duquesne. Assigned as his aide was George Washington. Braddock and his 1500 men were confident they could take the fort, but they were ambushed outside the gates by French soldiers and their Native American allies. During the battle, Braddock and his staff were killed with the exception of Washington. The British defeat at Fort Duquesne was only the first of many losses suffered during the period of 1755-1756. 22 Prime Minister William Pitt The French were initially victorious over the British military. However this changed dramatically when King George III picked new leaders to run the British government. William Pitt, as prime minister, put together a massive army of 50,000 men to fight the French, but had to borrow a large amount of money to do so. 23 British-American Colonial Tensions Colonials Methods of Fighting: British • Indian-style guerilla • March in formation or bayonet charge. tactics. Military • Col. militias served Organization: under own captains. • Br. officers wanted to take charge of colonials. Military Discipline: • No mil. deference or protocols observed. • Drills & tough discipline. Finances: • Resistance to rising taxes. • Colonists should pay for their own defense. Demeanor: • Casual, non-professionals. • Prima Donna Br. officers with servants & tea settings. 1757 William Pitt Becomes Foreign Minister A He understood colonial concerns. A He offered them a compromise: - col. loyalty & mil. cooperation-->Br. would reimburse col. assemblies for their costs. - Lord Loudoun would be removed. RESULTS? Colonial morale increased by 1758. 1758-1761 The Tide Turns for England * By 1761, Sp. has become an ally of Fr. Battle of Quebec Wolfe (British) The commanders Montcalm (French) 27 The Battle of Quebec The battle was fought outside the city of Quebec on the “Plains of Abraham” Wolfe had 4800 men under his command, Montcalm, 4000 Wolfe’s men scaled cliffs protecting the city and surprised Montcalm. Montcalm could have evacuated the city, but elected instead to fight Wolfe’s men British losses in the battle were 58 killed, 600 wounded French losses were 644 men killed or wounded Both Wolfe and Montcalm were killed in the battle Battle ended in a decisive British victory 28 The British victory caused the French to surrender Benjamin West painted this portrait of the death of Wolfe 29 1763 Treaty of Paris France --> lost her Canadian possessions, most of her empire in India, and claims to lands east of the Mississippi River. Spain --> got all French lands west of the Mississippi River, New Orleans, but lost Florida to England. England --> got all French lands in Canada, exclusive rights to Caribbean slave trade, and commercial dominance in India. North America in 1763 Effects of the War on Britain? 1. It increased her colonial empire in the Americas. 2. It greatly enlarged England’s debt. 3. Britain’s contempt for the colonials created bitter feelings. Therefore, England felt that a major reorganization of her American Empire was necessary! Effects of the War on the American Colonials 1. It united them against a common enemy for the first time. 2. It created a socializing experience for all the colonials who participated. 3. It created bitter feelings towards the British that would only intensify. The Aftermath: Tensions Along the Frontier 1763 Pontiac’s Rebellion Fort Detroit British “gifts” of smallpox-infected blankets from Fort Pitt. Pontiac’s Rebellion (1763) BACKLASH! British Proclamation Line of 1763. Colonials Paxton Boys (PA) MERCANTILISM: AN ECONOMIC SYSTEM IN WHICH NATIONS SEEK TO INCREASE THEIR WEALTH BY OBTAINING GOLD & SILVER AND WITH A FAVORABLE BALANCE OF TRADE MERCANTILISM George Grenville’s Program, 1763-1765 1. Sugar Act - 1764 2. Currency Act - 1764 3. Quartering Act - 1765 4. Stamp Act - 1765 Theories of Representation Real Whigs Q-> What was the extent of Parliament’s authority over the colonies?? Absolute? OR Limited? Q-> How could the colonies give or withhold consent for parliamentary legislation when they did not have representation in that body?? Stamp Act Crisis Loyal Nine - 1765 Sons of Liberty – began in NYC: Samuel Adams Stamp Act Congress – 1765 * Stamp Act Resolves Declaratory Act – 1766 Townshend Duties Crisis: 1767-1770 1767 William Pitt, P. M. & Charles Townshend, Secretary of the Exchequer. A Shift from paying taxes for Br. war debts & quartering of troops paying col. govt. salaries. A A A He diverted revenue collection from internal to external trade. Tax these imports paper, paint, lead, glass, tea. Increase custom officials at American ports established a Board of Customs in Boston. Colonial Response to the Townshend Duties 1. John Dickinson 1768 * Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania. 2. 1768 2nd non-importation movement: * “Daughters of Liberty” * spinning bees 3. Riots against customs agents: * John Hancock’s ship, the Liberty. * 4000 British troops sent to Boston.