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Aim: Was the Treaty of Versailles a good peace treaty? Coach Smith Do Now: Allies Trench Warfare The Treaty of Versailles Reparations Coach Smith In 1914, the Archduke of Austria was assassinated. Austrians believed that Serb officials had helped the assassins. Austrians decided to invade Serbia. Coach Smith Austria’s decision to invade Serbia set off a chain reaction that soon involved all of Europe’s major powers. Coach Smith During the war, Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey became known as the Central powers. Britain, France, and Russia were known as the Allies. Coach Smith During the first World War, soldiers dug themselves into trenches, protected by barbed wire and machine guns. Coach Smith Trenches extended hundreds of miles. Many soldiers died due to the harsh conditions in the trenches. New weapons were used during World War I. These weapons included the machine gun, poison gas, submarines, and airplanes. Coach Smith Initially, the United States was neutral. However, Americans were sympathetic to the British and French. When American ships were attacked by Germany in 1917, the United States entered the war while Russia dropped out of the war. Coach Smith The Russians had experienced a revolution and were promised “Peace, Land, and Bread.” When the Russians dropped out, the arrival of new American troops still favored the Allies. Coach Smith Coach Smith President Wilson announced Fourteen Points that he felt should be the basis of the coming peace. He planned to give each nationality its own government and end secret diplomacy. Coach Smith The Germans agreed to end the war and overthrew the Kaiser in 1918. However, the final peace terms turned out to be quite different from the Fourteen Points. Coach Smith The Treaty of Versailles (1919) concluded the peace with Germany. Germany lost territory to France and Poland, as well as all of its overseas colonies. The AustriaHungary empire was divided into several smaller states. Coach Smith Germany lost its navy while its army was reduced to a small police force. Germany was forced to accept blame for starting the war and was forced to pay huge reparations (payment for damages) to the Allies. Coach Smith The League of Nations or an organization of nations was created to prevent future national aggression. However, the United States and Russia failed to join it thus weakening its power. The road to the Second World War was being paved. Coach Smith Questions for Reflection: What event triggered the First World War? List the nations of the Central Powers and the Allies. What was trench warfare and why do you think it was particularly devastating? What were the terms of the Treaty of Versailles? Why did the Treaty of Versailles pave the way to future conflict in Europe?