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Transcript
Luxemburg
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• Luxembourg is
about half the
size of
Delaware
U.S.A in WWII
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Mobilization
• Selective Training and Service Actrequired all males aged 21-36 to
register for military service.
• U.S. began to boost its defense
spending from $2 billion to $10 billion
in less than a year.
G.I.
• More than
16million
Americans served
in WWII
• They were called
G.I.s which meant
“Government
Issue”
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American Diversity
• 300,000 Mexican Americans
• 25,000 Native Americans
i.e. “code talkers”
• Nearly 1 million African Americans
i.e. Tuskegee Airmen
• 350,000 women
“Waking the sleeping giant”
• 1942- War Production Board (WPB)
directed the conversion of peacetime
industries to industries that produced
war goods
• Wartime production lowered
unemployment
Paying for the war
• Spending increased from $8.9 billion in
1939 to $95.2 billion in 1945
• Higher taxes paid for about 41% of the
war
• National debt rose from $43 billion in
1940 to $259 billion in 1945
• Shortages and rationing
limited goods that people
could buy
Home front
• Metal to make zippers or
typewriters instead went
into guns
•Nylon for stockings
went into
parachutes
•Supply of food also
fell short
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• 1942- Office of War
Information hired
artist to create
posters and ads that
stirred Americans
patriotic feelings
• Victory gardensvegetable gardens
that could add to the
home food supply and
replace produce sent
to the soldiers
Public Support
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• Victory gardens produced about 1/3 of
the countries vegetables
European Theatre
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December 1941
• U.S. enters the war
• Allies in dire need of relief
• Axis had extended control over most of
Europe
• In North Africa Germany and Italy were
fighting British forces
Naval Control
• Control needed
for America to
send aid to
England
• German U-boats
made the
transport
difficult
• In 1942 nearly
175 allied ships
had been sunk
by U-boats
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North Africa
• 1942- Gen. Erwin Rommel “The desert
fox” was taking control of British and
French territories in Africa
• 1942- Allied troops, largely American,
landed in Morocco and Algeria began to
push Rommel back
• By 1943 Allied forces had Axis forces in
N. Africa trapped.
• Hitler’s order was to fight to the death,
but about 240,000 Germans and Italians
surrendered
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G2
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The next move
• Control of N.Africa allowed the Allies
to plan for their next move
• 1943- Gen. George S. Patton invaded
Italy
*1943- With Italy control in
jeopardy Mussolini was removed
from power by the King of Italy
*September 1943- Italy
surrenders to the Allies
*October 13, 1943 Italy declared
war on Germany
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June 22,
1941
After loosing the
Battle of Britain
Hitler planned to
invade the U.S.S.R.
The nonaggression
pact was broken
and Germany
invaded the Soviet
Union
3.6 million
Germans moved
into the U.S.S.R.
3 million Red Army
troops mobilized
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German advancement
• Soviet citizens who suffered under
Stalin welcomed the Nazis as liberators
• Their enthusiasm faded when German
troops introduced forces labor camps
and began to execute civilians
Stalin’s plan
• Controlled retreat
• Stalin told the Soviets, “In case of a forced
retreat of the Red Army all stock must be
evacuated; the enemy must not be left with
a single engine, a railway car, not a single
pound of grain or gallon of fuel.”
• German armies advanced deep into Soviet
territory
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Winter in the Soviet Union
• 1942- The Red Army decided to make a stand
at Stalingrad
• Germans began firebombing and shelling the
city. This lasted more than two months
• Soviet and German troops engaged in house
to house combat
• Taking advantage of the harsh winter, the
soviets surrounded the German army
• Jan. 31, 1943- 90,000 German surrender to
the Soviets
• Frozen soldier
Stalingrad 1942
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Stalingrad
• Germany lost 330,000 troops
• Soviet losses are estimated at
1.1million
• The Battle of Stalingrad is the turning
point of the war on the Soviet Front
Allies on the offensive
• 1943- Allies begin bombing tactical German
targets
i.e. factories, railways, and bridges
• Carpet bombing- when planes scattered
large numbers of bomb over a wide area
• July 28, 1943- Firebombing of Hamburg
turned the city into a massive fire
• 40,000 civilians died
• The allies apologized
Invading Europe
• 1943- Allies agreed to attack German
forces occupying France
• “Operation Overload” - would be
launched from G.B.
• Dwight D. Eisenhower would be
supreme allied commander
D-Day
• D-Day- The invasion of Western Europe
• June 6, 1944- 4,600 invasion craft and
warships moved across the English Channel
• 1,000 Royal Air Force bombers bombed
German defense at Normandy
• 23,000 airborne parachuted behind enemy
lines
• 150,000 Allied troops landed in Normandy,
France
• Allies experienced heavy casualties
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Pushing back the Nazis
• 1944- Nazis begin to loose numerous
battles
• The Nazis are pushed back to the
original German boundaries
• Battle of the Bulge- The German
counterattack on the allies that pushed
the lines back
Battle of the Bulge
• American units were cut off from the rest of
the Allies
• They held on against overwhelming odds
• Patton raced to the Americans aid to stop
the German advance
• The Battle of the Bulge was the largest
battle in Western Europe
•
•
•
•
600,000 Gis
80,000 were killed, wounded or captured
100,000 Germans were lost
This was the beginning of the end on the
Western front
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Final Days of the War
• March 1945- Allies begin to bomb Germany
into submission
• American forces from the west and Soviet
forces from the east race to Berlin
• Eastern Front- (1941-1945) 11 million Soviet
and 9 million German soldiers died. More
than 2/3s of total casualties in WWII
Germany Surrenders
• Soviets surround Berlin
• April 30, 1945- Hitler commits suicide
in his underground bunker
• May 8, 1945- Germany surrenders
• Celebration broke out “V-E Day”
(Victory in Europe)
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Yalta Conference
• February 1945- Churchill, Stalin and Roosevelt meet
in Yalta, Soviet Union
• They figured out how to shape postwar Germany
•They split Germany into
4 Zones
•They split Berlin into 4
Zones as well
•Stalin promised to allow
Democratic elections in
Soviet Germany
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Yalta
• Stalin did not fulfill his promise and
Eastern Europe fell under Communist
rule
• Critic believe Roosevelt and Churchill
did not do enough to prevent Soviet
domination in half of Europe
Pacific Theatre
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Japanese Expansion
• Admiral Yammamoto Isoroko- Leader of the
Japanese Navy
• 1941- Japan hit Pearl Harbor to gain military
control of the Western Pacific
• By 1942 the Japanese had gained control of
Hong Kong, Malaya, and Singapore (England)
and the East Indies (Dutch)
The Philippines
• 1942- 76,000 Americans and Filipinos running
low on ammo and food surrendered to the
Japanese
• Gen. MacArthur said “I shall return” as he
left the Philippines
• Bataan Death March- POWs were forced to
march 60 miles to the railroad junction.
They were denied water, some were beaten
and tortured. 10,000 prisoners died. Many
were executed.
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Rules of War
• Geneva convention- The international
standards of conduct toward prisoners
of war.
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War in the Pacific
• Battle of the Coral Sea- 1942 the
American Navy engaged a superior
Japanese fleet in the Coral Sea. The
battle was a draw, but it prevented the
Japanese from invading Australia
• New naval warfare, first naval battle
carried out entirely by aircraft.
Aircraft and aircraft carriers played a
central role in navel battles.
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Allied take the offensive
• Battle of Midway- June 4, 1942- A battle
fought entirely from the air. American planes
surprised Japanese carriers and sank four of
them.
• This was devastating to the Japanese navy.
After the battle, Japan was unable to launch
any more offensive operations in the Pacific
• Turning point of the war.
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Battle of Guadalcanal
• Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands
• 1942- 11,000 Marines landed on the island.
They fought the Japanese in “jungle
warfare”. Allies conquered their first
Japanese controlled territory.
• Island hopping- a military strategy of
selectively attacking specific enemy-held
islands and bypassed others. This allowed
the Americans to move quickly to Japan.
•
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Island Hopping
• Island hopping- a military strategy of
selectively attacking specific enemy-held
islands and bypassed others. This allowed
the Americans to move quickly to Japan.
• Gen. MacAurthur- leader of the Allied Navy
• 1944- Allied troops moved towards Japan.
They decided to retake the Philippines.
The Philippines
• 160,000 American troops invaded the
Philippines. More than 280 warships
engaged in a three-day battle.
• 80,000 Japanese defended the
Philippines, only 1,000 surrendered.
Kamikazes
• Kamikazes- Suicide planes. Pilots
loaded their planes with bombs and
the deliberately crashed into US ships.
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Iwo Jima
• 700 miles from Japan
• 1945- 110,000 American troops fought
25,000 Japanese.
• America won the battle
• 216 Japanese surrendered
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Battle of Okinawa
• 350 miles from Japan
• 100,000 Japanese troops willing to fight to
the death
• 180,000 GIs
• The battle had nearly 2,000 Kamikaze
attacks against the Allies
• Banzai charges- attacks where soldiers tried
to kill as many of the enemy as possible until
they are killed
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Manhattan Project
•
A top secret program to develop an
atomic bomb.
• Reasons for Dropping the Bomb
1. Invasion of Japan expected to cost 1
million Allied casualties
2. The bomb would allow for the
unconditional surrender of Japan
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Hiroshima and Nagasaki
• Hiroshima August 6, 1945- 80,000 died
• 90% of the city was destroyed
• Nagasaki August 9, 1945 the Allies dropped
another atom bomb
• August 14, 1945 Japan surrendered
• VJ Day- “Victory Japan”
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