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The Eastern Front World War II " Hitler wants Greece If Hitler can take Greece he can have control of the Mediterranean Sea. He has to go through Europe to get there. Italy invades Greece through Albania 10/28/1940 Germany joins April 1941 The Greeks fight hard. One of the worst battles is the Battle of Crete. Italy and Germany attack the Balkans Soviet Union; Russia One of Hitler’s greatest enemies is Russia. Hitler breaks the non-aggression pact signed by both countries in 1939 and starts to invade. The Russians fight hard and have the most causalities in the war. The Russian winter proves extra hard for the Germanys and they can’t maintain the army. Russia at War The people of Russia greatly suffer. In the Ukraine “The Bread Basket” of Russia the people burn crops in order to keep the Germanys from eating. This is a picture of Tanya Savicheva who kept a list of family members that died from stravation Russia at War In Leningrad/St. Petersburg the people suffer through a harsh winter and have to boil leather (horse skin) to eat fat. But eating too much could poison you… Soviet soldiers on skies patrolling the city Russia’s Resistance against the Nazi’s. Dmitri Shostakovich’s Symphony No. 7 in C major, Dedicated to the city of Leningrad on 27 December 1941. Symbol of resistance and defiance to Nazi totalitarianism and militarism. People all over the world listened to this symphony. Map of Russia Palestine Under British control the Palestinian's were with the Allies in World War II. It was hard for Palestine to pick a side they didn’t want to side with Germany who was attacking them. But the British were always helping the Jewish people take Palestinian land. Yugoslavia’s options 1. Let Germany take over after all they are much stronger. 2. Fight back because it’s not right to take over another country. Please note: After World War I the country of Yugoslavia was created by the allies to include Serbs, Croats, Slovenes, Macedonians, Montenegrins. Yugoslavia was a Constitutional Monarchy headed by the Serbian Monarchy the Karageorgivch Family Yugoslavia after the Nazi’s Notice how the map has changed. What happened to Yugoslavia? The Serbs resist instead of giving in Draza Mihailovic and the Chetniks revolt in May. Milan Nedic want to save the as many Serbs as possible creating the Serbian Government of Salvation. Josip Broz Tito is the leader of the Partisan (communists) and he fights the Nazi’s Croatians join the Nazi’s and are known as Ustashi (Ustasi) Images of the Ustasi Occupation Ustasa leader Ante Pavelic with Nazi Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop. Serbs being converted to Catholism Victims in Jasenovac Concentration Camp What did Croatia want? According to the Simon Wiesenthal Center (citing the Encyclopedia of the Holocaust), "Ustasa terrorists killed 500,000 Serbs, expelled 250,000 and forced 250,000 to convert to Catholicism. They murdered thousands of Jews and Gypsies.“ Explaining the Tragedy The crimes of the fascist Ustashe against the Serbs in the notorious camp of Jasenovac must be known - crimes that are the worst ones along with those committed against the Jews in the Holocaust." - Simon Wiesenthal Concentration Camps Dakovo Danica Jastrebarsko (children’s camp) Jadovno Jasenovac Kerestinec Krucica Lepoglava Loborgrad Pag Stara Gradiska Travnik Jasenovac then; Jasenovac Memorial Now What should the Serbs do? The choices were hard either be killed by the Ustasa or fight against them. The Nazi’s had a formula for every 1 German killed 100 Serbs; 1 German injured 50 Serbs killed. Many Serbs from Bosnia, Lika, Dalmatia decided to fight. Some sided with the Partisans (Tito and the communists) Some went along with the Chetniks. Draza Mihailovic A World War I soldier Dragolub took the responsibility of organizing the Chetniks to fight against the Nazi’s in the name of the Royal Army in May 1941 after the Nazi’s invade. Momcilo Djuic A priest and Duke of the Dinarska Division under the leadership of Draza organized the Serbs. In the Independent State of Croatia and Bosnia many Serbs resisted under the Chetniks. Milan Nedic Led a group of Serbs in Serbia known as the Serbian Government of Salvation. He did this to save as many Serbs as possible from the Nazi’s and Communists. What were the Allies doing? In the beginning of the War the Allies supported the Chetniks. The Chetniks saved 500 U.S. Airmen. But the Allies changed sides and supported Tito/Partisans. The Chetniks had no choice either flee Yugoslavia or stay and be killed. Djuic Leaves Duke Djuic leaves with 20,000 Serbs north for Slovenia They walk almost all winter long and stay over night in houses when the weather gets really bad. Eventually the Dinarska Division Chetniks walk to Italy and surrender to the Allies on May 6th (Djurdjev Dan) A New Chapter This begins the life in the Camps of Italy, and Germany after the war. The Chetniks are joined by Nedic’s Serbs who also have to flee because the Communists won. Eventually they come to the United States, England, Australia, Canada etc… Why is this important to know? First of all people should know their history. Second the hatred of Serbs from WWII is still around today in Croatia. “Those who cannot remember the past, are condemned to repeat it," George Santayana (12/16/1863- 9/26/1952 philosopher, essayist, poet, and novelist. Croatia Today Serbs are not welcome Independence Day April 10 1991 same day as 1941) Same flag from W.W.II Famous Ustashi leaders are common street names and historical landmarks.