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Transcript
Lesson 34
Cold War: Berlin & Korea
Lesson Objectives
• Build a foundation for understanding the genesis, issues, and
strategies of the Cold War.
• Understand the strategy of containment and become familiar
with the conflicts and confrontations that resulted.
• Begin to understand the concept of deterrence in the Cold War.
• Understand the causes, conduct, and consequences of the
Berlin Airlift.
• Understand the causes, conduct, and consequences of the
Korean War.
What was the Cold War?
The Cold War
Cold War:
A bipolar world, stabilized by a nuclear
balance between two superpowers
"The post-post Cold War"
Thomas Friedman
New York Times, May 10, 2006
The Cold War
Two New Superpowers With Divergent Strategies
USSR: Expansion
Use superpower status to achieve vision of global Communism
US: Containment
Prevent the spread of global Communism
Marshall Plan and Truman Doctrine:
Provide financial support to rebuild Europe and strengthen
other countries to resist Communism
The Cold War
Class Definition
A prolonged armed confrontation between
East

Communism
West

Democracy


Totalitarian Socialism
Free Market Capitalism
characterized by intense competition:
Military
Economic
Scientific
Cultural
Diplomatic
with local wars fought by proxies
When did the Cold War begin?
WW II End Game
Western Europe
WW II End Game
Southern Europe
WW II End Game
Eastern Europe
WW II End Game
February 1945
• Soviet army poised to begin push to Berlin
• 12 million men
• 4 million Allies still west of Rhine River
Cold War Timeline
28 Nov - 1 Dec 43
Tehran Conference
First Face-to-Face Meeting of the Big Three
Tehran Conference
November 28 - 1 December 1, 1943
US, Britain agree to open Second Front May 1944
Stalin insists on territory from Poland
Allies agree to coordinate activities
Cold War Timeline
28 Nov - 1 Dec 43
4-11 Feb 45
Tehran Conference
Yalta Conference
Yalta Conference
4-11 February 1945
Yalta Conference
4-11 February 1945
The Big Three
Yalta Conference
4-11 February 1945
Each leader had their priorities:
Roosevelt: Gain Soviet assistance in war with Japan
Obtain Soviet participation in United Nations
Churchill: Restore democratic institutions to Eastern Europe
Stalin: Extend sphere of influence to Eastern Europe as buffer
Yalta Conference
4-11 February 1945
Results: Defined the post-war world
• Pursue unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany
• Germany to be divided into four occupation zones
• Berlin to be subject to four-power occupation
• Germany to be demilitarized and purged of Nazis
• Reparations to USSR (forced labor & industrial capacity)
• Recognition of provisional government and elections in Poland
• Poland would cede territory to USSR but gain from Germany
• USSR would join UN provided it had veto in Security Council
• USSR to declare war on Japan within 90 days of German defeat
Yalta Conference
4-11 February 1945
Newsreel
Yalta Conference
4-11 February 1945
Concerns:
• Soviets would take Berlin
• Four Power Partition of Germany, Berlin
• Soviets would get parts of Poland
• Soviets would receive Japanese territory
• Korea divided at 38th parallel
Considered by many the beginning of the Cold War
Cold War Timeline
4-11 Feb 45
12 Apr 45
Yalta Conference
FDR dies, succeeded by Harry Truman
Transitions
President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Died at Warm Springs, Georgia
April 12, 1945
Transitions
Harry S. Truman
Assumed presidency
April 12, 1945
Cold War Timeline
4-11 Feb 45
Yalta Conference
12 Apr 45
FDR dies, succeeded by Harry Truman
8 May 45
VE Day
17 Jul - 2 Aug 45
Potsdam Conference
Potsdam Conference
July 17 - August 2, 1945
Potsdam: Berlin suburb
Big 3 allies gathered to discuss administration of Germany
and other issues involving transition from war to peace
Potsdam Conference
July 17 - August 2, 1945
Cecillenhof Palace, Potsdam
Big 3 allies gathered to discuss administration of Germany
and other issues involving transition from war to peace
President Truman presided as the only head of state
Potsdam Conference
July 17 - August 2, 1945
Big Three early in Potsdam Conference
Transitions
Prime Minister Winston S. Churchill
Conservative Party voted out of office
July 27, 1945
Clement Attlee
Prime Minister, July 1945 - October 1951
Potsdam Conference
July 17 - August 2, 1945
Big Three late in Potsdam Conference
Potsdam Agreement
August 1, 1945
Key Points:
Political: Democratization, Disarmament, Demilitarization,
Elimination of all Nazi influence.
Economic: Destruction of all war-making industry
Focus of economy to be agriculture and light industry
Reparations to USSR from Soviet zone plus 10% of industrial
capability from Western zone
Dispersal of German navy and merchant marine
War crimes: Established mechanism for Nuremberg Trials
Provisions for governments of Austria and Poland
Provisions for peace treaties and admission to United Nations
Transfer of populations
Source: PBS
German Zones of Occupation
Potsdam Conference
Truman tells Stalin about A-bomb
July 24, 1945
Comment on back of photograph:
“In which I tell Stalin we expect to drop the most powerful explosive ever on the Japanese.
He smiled and said he appreciated my telling him but he did not know what I was talking about - the Atomic Bomb!
HST”
Department of Energy Source
Potsdam Declaration
July 25, 1945
Key Points: Resolution of Pacific War
Militarism must end in Japan
Japanese Army to be disarmed
Democracy to be established
Industry to be allowed but no capability to rearm
Territory taken from China to be returned
Korea to become a free and independent nation
War criminals to be punished
Japan to be occupied until these provisions are complied with
"We call upon the government of Japan to proclaim now the unconditional surrender of all
Japanese armed forces, and to provide proper and adequate assurances of their good
faith in such action. The alternative for Japan is prompt and utter destruction.”
Roots of the Cold War
The Three Conferences
Tehran Conference
November 28 - 1 December 1, 1943
First meeting of “Big 3”
Allies agree to coordinate war activities
Yalta Conference
4-11 February 1945
Yalta Conference
Defined
post-war
4-11 February
1945 world
Defined post-war world
Potsdam Conference
July 17 - August 2, 1945
Discussed issues in transition from war to peace
Cold War Timeline
4-11 Feb 45
Yalta Conference
12 Apr 45
FDR dies, succeeded by Harry Truman
8 May 45
VE Day
17 Jul - 2 Aug 45
6, 9 Aug 45
Potsdam Conference
Atomic bombings of Japan
8 Aug 45
USSR declares war on Japan
15 Aug 45
VJ Day
11 Jan 46
Communist regime declared in Albania
22 Feb 46
George Kennan “Long Telegram” from Moscow
“The Long Telegram”
February 22, 1946 from Moscow
Deputy Chief of US Mission in Moscow
Was responding to US Treasury inquiry
• Why is USSR not supporting world monetary system?
George F. Keenan
His response is hailed as the defining document of Cold War
• Characterized Soviet mindset and coming confrontation with West
Document served as foundation for Containment Policy
Text of Message
Wikisource
“The Long Telegram”
February 22, 1946 from Moscow
Highlights:
• The USSR perceived itself at perpetual war with capitalism;
• Socialism and social democracy are enemies, not allies;
• USSR would use Marxists in the capitalist world as allies;
• Soviet aggression aligned with historic Russian xenophobia and paranoia;
• Soviet system prohibited objective view of reality.
Soviet power impervious to logic of reason, but highly sensitive to logic of force.
Roots of Containment
Cold War Timeline
4-11 Feb 45
Yalta Conference
12 Apr 45
FDR dies, succeeded by Harry Truman
8 May 45
VE Day
17 Jul - 2 Aug 45
6, 9 Aug 45
Potsdam Conference
Atomic bombings of Japan
8 Aug 45
USSR declares war on Japan
15 Aug 45
VJ Day
11 Jan 46
Communist regime declared in Albania
22 Feb 46
George Kennan “Long Telegram” from Moscow
Mar 46
Civil war erupts in Greece - Communists vs. conservatives
“Iron Curtain”
March 5, 1946
Winston Churchill
Westminster College, Fulton, MO
“From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an ‘iron curtain’ has descended across the Continent.
Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin,
Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia; all these famous cities and the populations
around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject, in one form or another, not only to
Soviet influence but to a very high and in some cases increasing measure of control from Moscow. ”
Alt:  (0:51)
Cold War Timeline
5 Mar 46
Churchill “Iron Curtain” speech
8 Sep 46
Bulgaria deposes king, establishes People’s Republic
19 Jan 47
Referendum in Poland brings Communist government
12 Mar 47
Truman Doctrine announced
Truman Doctrine
March 12, 1947
US foreign policy designed to stop spread of Communism
Pledged to provide economic and military aid to Greece and Turkey
US foreign policy transitioned from détent to containment
Some sources cite this as the beginning of the Cold War
Truman Doctrine
March 12, 1947
( 2:30 )
George C. Marshall
Soldier - Statesman
• Graduate of VMI (1901)
• Army Chief of Staff (1939)
• Time Man of the Year (1943)
1880-1959
George C. Marshall
Soldier - Statesman
• Graduate of VMI (1901)
• Army Chief of Staff (1939)
• Time Man of the Year (1943)
• General of the Army (5 stars - 1944)
• Retired as Army Chief of Staff (1945)
• Secretary of State (1947 - 1949)
1880-1959
… the “true architect of victory” in Western Europe …
Winston Churchill
Marshall Plan
April 3, 1948
Foreign Assistance Act of 1948
(Also referred to as the Economic Cooperation Act and
the European Recovery Act)
• Grew from realization that slow recovery from war devastation in Western
Europe would leave the region weak and subject to Communist incursion
• US leadership did not want a repeat of post- World War One conditions
that contributed to the Great Depression and rise of Fascism.
• Marshall publicly presented idea in Harvard commencement address
(June 5, 1947)
• Provided $12 B in recovery aid (Value in 2005 $: $555 B per GDP share)
• Major factor in Western European resistance to Communism
George C. Marshall
Soldier - Statesman
• Graduate of VMI (1901)
• Army Chief of Staff (1939)
• Time Man of the Year (1943)
• General of the Army (5 stars - 1944)
• Retired as Army Chief of Staff (1945)
• Secretary of State (1947 - 1949)
• Secretary of Defense (1950 - 1951)
• Nobel Peace Prize (1953)
1880-1959
Cold War Timeline
5 Mar 46
Churchill “Iron Curtain” speech
8 Sep 46
Bulgaria deposes king, establishes People’s Republic
19 Jan 47
Referendum in Poland brings Communist government
12 Mar 47
Truman Doctrine announced
5 Jun 47
25 Feb 48
3 Apr 48
Sec State George Marshall outlines European aid plan
Communist Party takes control of Czechoslovakia
Truman signs Foreign Assistance Act (Marshall Plan)
10 May 48
Republic of Korea proclaimed, Syngman Rhee president
24 Jun 48
Stalin orders blockade of Berlin; allies respond with airlift
Berlin Airlift
Berlin
Berlin
Berlin Blockade
Soviets wanted Western Allies out of Berlin
June 24, 1948:
Blocked all ground access to Berlin
Ground access rights never formally guaranteed
Berlin Airlift
June 24, 1948 - May 11, 1949
Western response: supply city by air
Air corridors guaranteed by Four
Power agreement on Berlin
First significant confrontation of the Cold War
Berlin Airlift
June 24, 1948 - May 11, 1949
North Atlantic Treaty
April 4, 1949
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Formed
• Military alliance to protect Western Europe
• Original members: Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France,
Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway,
Portugal, United Kingdom, United States
• Greece, Turkey joined in 1952
• West Germany joined following ratification of Paris Peace Treaties
(May 1955)
USSR responded with Warsaw Pact (May 14, 1955)
• Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary,
Poland, Rumania, Soviet Union
Cold War Timeline
9 Sep 48
Stalin declares PDRK legitimate government of all Korea
4 Apr 49
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) established
11 May 49
Berlin Blockade lifted
23 May 49
Federal Republic of Germany created from Western Zone
29 Aug 49
Soviet Union detonates first nuclear device
Soviet A-bomb
Soviet Nuclear Test (US code name “Joe 1”)
August 29, 1949
NSC-68
April 14, 1950
Classified National Security Council document
Full analysis of US-USSR relationship
Defined initial US Cold War strategy:
Containment
Implemented the Truman Doctrine
Cold War Timeline
9 Sep 48
Stalin declares PDRK legitimate government of all Korea
4 Apr 49
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) established
11 May 49
Berlin Blockade lifted
23 May 49
Federal Republic of Germany created from Western Zone
29 Aug 49
Soviet Union detonates first nuclear device
1 Oct 49
Mao Zedong declares People’s Republic of China
7 Oct 49
German Democratic Republic created from Eastern Zone
12 Jan 50
Sec State Acheson speech omits Korea as US interest area
14 Feb 50
USSR & PRC sign mutual defense pact
25 Jun 50
North Korea (PDRK) invades South Korea (ROK)
27 Jun 50
United Nations votes to use military force to assist ROK
Korea War
Korea
Annexed by Japan in 1910
Big 3 pledged independence for Korea at Potsdam
Divided into zones of occupation at 38th parallel after WW II
• USSR occupied north, US the south
Korea
Ignored strategically by US after WW II
“From the standpoint of military security, the United States has little
strategic interest in maintaining the present troops and bases in
Korea.”
Joint Chiefs of Staff to President Truman
25 September 1947
Soviets announced plan to withdraw their troops by 1 January 1949
28 September 1948
Korea omitted from countries in US Pacific defense perimeter
Secretary of State Dean Acheson
Speech on the Far East
National Press Club
12 January 1950
Korea
Ignored strategically by US after WW II
“The defensive perimeter runs along the Aleutians to Japan and then
goes to the Ryukyus … [and] from the Ryukyus to the Philippine Islands.”
Secretary of State Dean Acheson
Speech on the Far East
National Press Club
Source
12 January 1950
Korean War
June 25, 1950 - (July 27, 1953)
June 25, 1950:
North Korean forces crossed 38th parallel
100,000 troops supported by tanks and aircraft
Korean War
North Korea Attacks
25 June 1950
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/macarthur/maps/koreatxt.html
Korean War
June 25, 1950 - (July 27, 1953)
UN Security Council voting to use military force in Korea
June 27,1950
USSR absent (boycotting UN)
Parallels
Korea and Gulf War
Both were declared non-vital to US
These were the only two time the UN authorized
military force (up to 1991)
Korean War
June 25, 1950 - (July 27, 1953)
General of the Army Douglas MacArthur
Placed in command of UN forces
Korean War
Pusan Perimeter
July-August 1950
Korean War
Inchon Landing
15 September 1950
Inchon Landing
September 15, 1950
Operation Chromite
MacArthur proposed bold strategic stroke in enemy rear
Inchon Landing
September 15, 1950
Operation Chromite
Inchon 10 miles from Seoul and lightly defended
Inchon Landing
September 15, 1950
Problem: 30 foot tides
Inchon Landing
September 15, 1950
Operation Chromite
Inchon Landing
September 15, 1950
Operation Chromite
Korean War
Approaching the Yalu River
October-November 1950
Korean War
Memory of this haunted
presidents during the
Vietnam War
China Enters the War
November 1950 - January 1951
Truman & MacArthur
Meeting at Wake Island, October 14, 1950
Truman & MacArthur
Truman concerned about MacArthur’s “freelancing”
• Statements about expanding the war
• Did not seem to understand political implications of war
“From the Far East I send you one message, written in blood on
every beachhead from Australia to Tokyo:
There is no substitute for victory!”
General of the Army Douglas MacArthur
Firing Message
"With deep regret I have concluded that General of the Army
Douglas MacArthur is unable to give his wholehearted support to the
policies of the U.S. Government and of the U.N. in matters pertaining
to his official duties. In view of the specific responsibilities imposed
upon me by the Constitution of the U.S. and the added
responsibilities entrusted to me by the U.N. I have decided that I
must make a change in command in the Far East. I have, therefore,
relieved General MacArthur of his command and have designated Lt.
Gen. Matthew Ridgway as his successor".
Truman Statement on MacArthur
April 6, 1951
Korean War
US Battle
Deaths:36,940
Stalemate
January 1951 - 27 July 1953
Korean War
June 25, 1950 - (July 27, 1953)
November 1952:
Dwight Eisenhower elected president
Visited Korea as president-elect
Hinted at use of nuclear weapons to end war
Chinese got serious about negotiations
• Cease fire signed July 27, 1953
Next:
Lesson 35
Cold War: Living on the Brink
Lesson Objectives
• Build a foundation for understanding the genesis, issues, and
strategies of the Cold War.
• Understand the strategy of containment and become familiar
with the conflicts and confrontations that resulted.
• Be able to describe and discuss the concepts of countervalue
and counterforce targeting.
• Begin to understand the concept of deterrence in the Cold War.
• Understand the impact of the Cold War nuclear standoff on US
society.
End