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WWII
{
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Allies vs. Axis Powers
 Italy, Germany and Japan form Axis
 “Revisionists:” wished to revise post-World War I
peace treaties
 Allies initially follow policy of appeasement
 War erupts 1939, global by 1941, over 1945

The Second World War
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The Ineffectiveness of the
League of Nations
 No control of major conflicts.
 No progress in disarmament.
 No effective military force.
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Conquest of Chinese Manchuria 1931-1932
 Full-scale invasion in 1937
 The Rape of Nanjing
 Ariel bombing of urban center
 400,000 Chinese used for bayonet practice,
massacred
 7,000 women raped
 1/3 of all homes destroyed
 Japan signs Tripartite Pact with Germany, Italy (1940),
Non-Aggression Pact with USSR (1941)

Japan’s War in China
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Benito Mussolini invades Ethiopia with overpowering
force
 2,000 Italian troops killed, 275,000 Ethiopians killed
 Also takes Libya, Albania

Italian Aggression
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Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) withdraws from League of
Nations
 Remilitarizes Germany
 Anschluss (“Union”) with Austria, 1938
 Pressure on Sudetenland (Czechoslovakia)

Germany
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Italy, France, Great Britain, Germany meet
 Allies follow policy of appeasement
 Hitler promises to halt expansionist efforts
 British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain (18691940) promises “peace for our time”
 Hitler signs secret Russian-German Treaty of NonAggression (Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, August 1939)

Munich Conference (1938)
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Appeasement: The Munich
Agreement, 1938
British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain
Now we have “peace in our time!” Herr
Hitler is a man we can do business with.
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September 1, 1939
 Blitzkrieg: “lightning war” strategy
 Air forces soften up target, armored divisions
rush in
 German U-boats (submarines) patrol Atlantic,
threaten British shipping

Invasion of Poland and
France
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Poland Attacked: Sept. 1, 1939
Blitzkrieg [“Lightening War”]
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The Maginot
Line
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France Surrenders
June, 1940
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Winston
Churchill
In May of 1940, Winston
Churchill replaced Neville
Chamberlain as the prime
minister of Britain. Churchill
had earned himself a reputation
of speaking out against the
policy of appeasement all
throughout the 1930’s.
 Hitler offered a peace
negotiation which Churchill
refused. In response, Hitler
ordered his air force, the
Luftwaffe to soften up Britain for
invasion.

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Air war conducted by the German Luftwaffe
 “The Blitz”
 40,000 British civilians killed in urban bombing raids
 Especially London
 Royal Air Force prevents Germans from invading

The Battle of Britain
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The Battle of
Britain - 1940
The Battle of Britain is the
attempt by the German
Luftwaffe to gain air
superiority over the Royal
Air Force (RAF), before a
planned sea and airborne
invasion of Britain during
World War II.
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Lebensraum (“living space”)
 June 22, 1941 Hitler double-crosses Stalin and
invades USSR
 Stalin caught off-guard, rapid advance
 But severe winter, long supply lines weakened
German efforts
 Soviets regroup and attack Spring 1942
 Turning point: Battle of Stalingrad (ends February
1943)

Operation Barbarossa
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Battle of Stalingrad:
Winter of 1942-1943
German Army
Russian Army
1,011,500 men
1,000,500 men
10,290 artillery guns
13,541 artillery guns
675 tanks
894 tanks
1,216 planes
1,115 planes
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US initiates “cash and carry” policy to supply
Allies with arms
 “lend-lease” program: US lends war goods to
Allies, leases naval bases in return
 US freezes Japanese assets in US
 US places embargo on oil shipments to Japan
 Japanese Defense Minister Tojo Hideki (1884-1948)
plans for war with US

US Involvement in WWII before
Pearl Harbor
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Pearl Harbor - Dec. 7, 1941
A date which will live in infamy!
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Axis Powers in 1942
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Key factors: personnel reserves, industrial capacity
 US joining the war turned the tide
 Shipbuilding, automotive production especially
important

Defeat of the Axis Powers
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Red Army (USSR) gains offensive after Stalingrad
(February 1943)
 British, US forces attack in North Africa, Italy
 D-Day: June 6, 1944, British and US forces land in
France
 US, Britain bomb German cities



Dresden, February 1945: 135,000 Germans killed in shelters
30 April 1945 Hitler commits suicide, 8 May
Germany surrenders
Allied Victory in Europe
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D-Day (June 6, 1944)
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US code breaking operation Magic discovers
Japanese plans
 Battle of Midway (June 4, 1942)
 US takes the offensive, engages in island-hopping
strategy
 Iwo Jima and Okinawa
 Japanese kamikaze suicide bombers
 Savage two-month battle for Okinawa

Turning the Tide in the
Pacific
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US firebombs Tokyo, March 1945
 100,000 killed
 25% of buildings destroyed
 Atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki,
August 1945
 Emperor Hirohito (1901-1989) surrenders
unconditionally September 2, 1945

Japanese Surrender
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The Manhattan Project:
Los Alamos,
NM
Major General
Lesley R. Groves
Dr. Robert
Oppenheimer
I am become
death,
the shatterer
of worlds!
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Hiroshima – August 6, 1945
© 70,000 killed
immediately.
© 48,000 buildings.
destroyed.
© 100,000s died of
radiation poisoning &
cancer later.
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Nagasaki – August 9, 1945
© 40,000 killed
immediately.
© 60,000 injured.
© 100,000s died of
radiation poisoning
& cancer later.
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Hiroshima after the Bomb
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Jews primary target of Nazi genocidal efforts
 Other groups also slated for destruction: Roma
(Gypsies), Homosexuals, Jehovah’s Witnesses
 Nazis initially encouraged Jewish emigration
 Few countries willing to accept Jewish refugees
 Aborted plans to deport Jews to Madagascar,
reservation in Poland

Nazi Genocide and the
Jews
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Einsatzgruppen (mobile killing squads) follow
German army into USSR with Operation Barbarossa
 Round up of Jews and others, machine-gun
executions of 1.4 million
 Later in 1941 decided on “Final Solution:”
deportation of all European Jews to Death Camps
 Plans solidified at Wannsee Conference, January 1942

The Final Solution
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Concentration
Camps
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Jews deported from ghettos all over Europe in cattle
cars, spring 1942
 Destination: six specially designed Death Camps in
Eastern Europe
 Technologically advanced, assembly-line style of
murder through poison gas (Zyklon B)
 Corpses destroyed in crematoria
 Estimated number of Jews killed: 5.7 million

The Holocaust
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WAVES (Women Appointed for Volunteer Emergency
Service)
 US, Great Britain bar women from serving in combat
units
 Soviet, Chinese forces include women fighters
 Women very active in resistance movements

Women and the War
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Women occupy jobs of men away at war
 Also take on “head of household” duties
 Temporary: men returning from war displace women
 Yet lasting impact on women’s movement

Women’s Roles
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
US, USSR, Great Britain unnatural allies during
World War II


Tensions submerged until close of war
Yalta and Potsdam Conferences (1945)



Stalin, Churchill, Roosevelt
Decided on USSR declaration of war vs. Japan, setting up
of International Military Tribunal
Free elections for Eastern Europe
Stalin arranges pro-communist governments in
Eastern European countries
 1946: “Iron Curtain” descends

Origins of the Cold War
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The “Iron Curtain”
{
“From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the
Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the
Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient
capitals of Central and Eastern Europe.”
Winston Churchill (1946)
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The Yalta Conference
In February of
1945, Roosevelt,
Churchill and
Stalin met at a
Soviet resort
called Yalta,
which ended in
an agreement
for the Soviets
to enter the war
with the allies
against Japan.
The "Big Three" at the Yalta Conference,
Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and
Joseph
Copyright
© 2007Stalin.
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The Creation of the U. N.
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The Nuremberg War Trials:
Crimes Against Humanity
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Literature Inspired by the War
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Superpowers at the End of WWII

United States
No cities had been destroyed
 Economy was very strong
 Military leader of the world
 Wanted to create a peaceful world


Soviet Union
Endured fighting on its soil
 20 million casualties in WWII
 Wanted to protect their country against
aggression

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World divided into free and enslaved states
 US to support all movements for democracy
 “containment” of Communism
 NATO and the Warsaw Pact established
 Militarization of Cold War

The Truman Doctrine
(1947)
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Truman Doctrine [1947]
1. Civil War in Greece.
2. Turkey under pressure from the USSR for
concessions in the Dardanelles.
3. The U. S. should support free peoples
throughout the world who were resisting
takeovers by armed minorities or outside
pressures…We must assist free peoples to work
out their own destinies in their own way.
{
4. The U.S. gave Greece & Turkey $400 million
in aid.
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Post-War Germany
{
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Berlin Blockade and Airlift—Operation
Vittles (1948-1949)
{
USSR finally gave in
and ended the blockade
•Lasted for 10 months
•British and American planes
delivered things every 3 minutes
•Delivered 2.3 million tons of
supplies including food, coal,
newspapers, and toys
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Named for George C. Marshall (1880-1989), US
Secretary of State
 Proposed in 1947, $13 billion to reconstruct western
Europe
 USSR establishes Council for Mutual Economic
Assistance (COMECON), 1949
 The United Nations formed (1945) to resolve
international disputes

The Marshall Plan
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Marshall Plan [1948]
1.“European Recovery
Program.”
2.Secretary of State,
George Marshall
3.The U. S. should provide
aid to all European nations
that need it. This move
is not against any country or doctrine, but against
hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos.
4.$12.5 billion of US aid to Western Europe
extended to Eastern Europe & USSR, [but this was
rejected].
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Economic
growth as a
result of the
Marshall
Plan
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

1949—China became Communist under Mao Zedong
Two wars broke out because of conflict between the
Communist north and democratic south


1950s—Korean War
1960s and 1970s—Vietnam War
The Cold War Spread
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The Arms Race
•1949—USSR exploded
first atomic bomb, which
began the Arms Race
{
•Both the US and USSR
increased their armed
forces and weapons
supplies
•1950s—ICBMs were created
•Deterrence was
practiced by both sides
•They believed that an
arsenal of nuclear
weapons actually
prevented war
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NATO—North Atlantic Treaty
Organization (1949)
{
Defensive
alliance
created by
the West
that pledged
military
support
 United States
 Luxemburg
 Belgium
 Netherlands
 Britain
 Norway
 Canada
 Portugal
 Denmark
 Greece and Turkey
(1952)
 France
 Iceland
 West Germany (1955)
 28 members today

Italy
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Warsaw Pact (1955)
{
Soviet response to NATO and
defensive alliance against the West.
Disbanded in 1991.
}
USSR
}
East Germany
}
Albania
}
Hungary
}
Bulgaria
}
Poland
}
Czechoslovakia
}
Romania
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Sputnik I (1957)
{
•First human-made space satellite
•This meant that the Russians beat America
and had the technological edge over the
United States
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