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Chapter 1
The Study of Body
Function
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
1-1
Human Physiology
Physiology: study
of how body
works to maintain life
Pathophysiology:
how
physiological processes are
altered in disease or injury
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
1-3
Using Scientific Method to Develop New Drugs
 If
effective and safe, clinical trials performed
Phase I Trials: Toxicity and metabolism tested in
healthy human volunteers
Phase II Trials: Effectiveness and toxicity tested
in target population
Phase III Trials: Widespread test of drug in
diverse population
Phase IV Trials: Drug is tested for other potential
uses
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
1-8
Homeostasis
 Is
maintenance of a state of dynamic constancy
In which conditions are stabilized above and below a
physiological set point
By negative feedback loops
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
1-10
Negative Feedback Loops
Sensor:
Detects deviation
from set point
Integrating center:
Determines response
Effector: Produces
response
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
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Homeostasis continued
 Regulatory
mechanisms:
Positive feedback is rare because it amplifies changes
It is involved in producing blood clots
In females it is used to create the LH surge that causes
ovulation
Positive feedback between the uterus and oxytocin
secretion occurs during labor
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
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Homeostasis continued
 Regulatory
mechanisms:
Negative feedback loops control blood pressure
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
1-16
Organs
Are
anatomical and functional
units made of two or more
primary tissues
Systems are groups of organs
working together to maintain
homeostasis
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
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Skin—The Largest Organ
Has
an outer layer of protective cornified epidermis
Next layer is dermis, which contains connective tissue,
glands, blood vessels, nerves
Inner layer is hypodermis, which contains fat
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
1-42
Stem Cells
Most
cells in organs are highly specialized or differentiated
Many organs retain small populations of adult stem cells
These are less differentiated; can become many cell types
E.g. bone marrow stem cells can give rise to all of the
different blood cell types
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
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