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Customer Relationship Management
CRM:
Part of Chapter 4
Electronic Business: Scope
企業價值
B2C
EC
企業策略
KM
SCM
ERP
Supplier
CRM
Customer
BI
B2B EC
2
CRM and Its
Relationship with EC
Customer relationship management (CRM):
A customer service approach that focuses
on building long-term and sustainable
customer relationships that add value both
for the customer and the company
3
Why CRM ?
Twice the normal
turnover
Top 20% contributed to 150% profit, while the
worst 40% results in 50% profit reduction
Profit
50% profit reduction
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Customer segments
Source: Manhattan Consulting Group
4
Customer Relationship
Advertisement, Brand image
Focal Company
Customer
Low visibility
Advertisement, Brand image
Focal Company
Channel
Customer
Very low visibility
Advertisement, Brand image
Focal
Company
Salesmen
Channel
Customer
No
visibility
5
Changes in Relationship
As is
Focal
Customer
Sales/
Channels
To Be
Focal
Customer
Sales/
Channels
6
CRM and Its
Relationship with EC (cont.)
Classification of CRM programs
Loyalty program
Prospecting
Save or win back
Cross-sell/up-sell
eCRM: Customer relationship management
conducted electronically
7
CRM and Its
Relationship with EC (cont.)
Scope of CRM
1. Foundation of service
2. Customer-centered services
3. Value-added services
8
CRM and Its
Relationship with EC (cont.)
Extent of service
1. Customer acquisition (prepurchase support)
2. Customer support during purchase
3. Customer fulfillment (purchase dispatch)
4. Customer continuance support (postpurchase)
9
Components of CRM
Customer and Product
centric services
Differential Marketing
Mass marketing
Focused marketing
One-to-one marketing
Customers are not
born equal
Customer
Management
Sales
Managment
Marketing
Management
Service
Management
Database
Marketing
10
CRM and Its
Relationship with EC (cont.)
Benefits of CRM
Provides:
choices of products and services
fast problem resolution and response
easy and quick access to information
Limitations of CRM
Requires integration with a company’s other
information systems which is costly
Difficult to support mobile employees
11
CRM and Its
Relationship with EC (cont.)
CRM implementation issues
Steps in building EC strategy focused on
customer:
1.focus on the end customer
2.systems and business processes that are
designed for ease of use and from the end
customer’s point of view
3.efforts to foster customer loyalty
12
CRM and Its
Relationship with EC (cont.)
Five factors required to implement a CRM
program effectively:
1. Customer-centric strategy
2. Commitments from people
3. Improved or redesigned processes
4. Software technology
5. Infrastructure
13
CRM and Its
Relationship with EC (cont.)
Justifying customer service and CRM
programs
Metrics: Standards of performance; may be
quantitative or qualitative
14
CRM and Its
Relationship with EC (cont.)
Web-related metrics a company uses to determine
the appropriate level of customer support:
Response time
Site availability
Download time
Timeliness
Security and privacy
On-time order fulfillment
Return policy
Navigability
15
CRM Applications and Tools:
Delivering Customer Service in Cyberspace
CRM applications improve upon traditional
customer service by means of easier
communications and speedier resolution of
customer problems
Customer service adds value to products
and services
It is an integral part of a successful
business
16
CRM Applications and Tools (cont.)
Classifications of CRM applications
Customer-facing applications
Customer-touching applications
Customer-centric intelligence applications
Online networking and other applications
17
Formation of CRM
Front-end
Communication
CRM
Core
Operational
CRM
• CTI
• Net Banking
• B2C e-Commerce
• Customer Mgt
• Marketing Mgt
• Sales Mgt
• Service Mgt
Operational
Database
Extraction
Transformation
Loading
Back-end
Analytical
CRM
• Data Mining
• OLAP
• EIS
Database
Data Mart
Data Warehouse
Demographic Data
Transaction Data
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CRM Applications and Tools (cont.)
Customer-facing applications
Customer interaction center (CIC): A
comprehensive service entity in which EC
vendors address customer service issues
communicated through various contact
channels
Intelligent agents in customer service and
call centers
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CRM Applications and Tools (cont.)
20
CRM Applications and Tools (cont.)
21
CRM Applications and Tools (cont.)
Autoresponders: Automated e-mail reply
systems (text files returned via e-mail),
which provide answers to commonly asked
questions
Sales force automation (SFA): Software
that automates the tasks performed by sales
people in the field, such as data collection
and its transmission
22
CRM Applications and Tools (cont.)
Customer-touching applications
Personalized Web Pages
E-Commerce Applications
Campaign Management
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CRM Applications and Tools (cont.)
Web Self-Service
Activities conducted by users on the Web to
provide answers to their questions (e.g.,
tracking) or for product configuration
Self-tracking
Self-configuration and customization
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CRM Applications and Tools (cont.)
Customer-centric applications
Data reports
Data warehouse
A single, server-based data repository that
allows centralized analysis, security, and
control over the data
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CRM Applications and Tools (cont.)
Data analysis and mining
Analytic applications automate the
processing and analysis of CRM data
can be used to analyze the performance,
efficiency, and effectiveness of an operation’s
CRM applications
Data mining involves sifting through an
immense amount of data to discover
previously unknown patterns
26
CRM Applications and Tools (cont.)
Online networking and other applications
Forums
Chat rooms
Usenet groups
E-mail newsletters
Discussion lists
27
CRM Applications and Tools (cont.)
Mobile CRM
the delivery of CRM applications to any
user, whenever and wherever needed
Voice communication
people are more comfortable talking with
a person, even a virtual one, than they are
interacting with machines. The smile and
the clear pronunciation of the agent’s voice
increases shoppers’ confidence and trust
28
CRM Applications and Tools (cont.)
29
CRM Applications and Tools (cont.)
Role of knowledge management and
intelligent agents in CRM
Automating inquiry routing and
answering queries requires knowledge
Generated from historical data and from
human expertise and stored in knowledge
bases for use whenever needed
Intelligent agents support the mechanics of
inquiry routing, autoresponders, and so on
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Internet Marketing in B2B
Organizational buyer behavior
number of organizational buyers is much
smaller than the number of individual buyers
transaction volumes are far larger
terms of negotiations and purchasing are
more complex
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Internet Marketing in B2B
(cont.)
32
Internet Marketing in B2B
(cont.)
Methods for B2B online marketing
Targeting customers
contact all of its targeted customers
individually when they are part of a welldefined group
affiliation service
advertising
Electronic wholesalers
intermediary sells directly to businesses, but
does so exclusively online
33
Internet Marketing in B2B
(cont.)
Affiliate programs
Placing banners on another vendor’s Web site
Content alliance program in which content is
exchanged so that all can obtain some free
content
Infomediaries
Online data mining services
34
One-to-One Marketing and
Personalization in EC
One-to-one marketing: Marketing that treats
each customer in a unique way
Personalization: The matching of services,
products, and advertising content to
individual consumers
User profile: The requirements, preferences,
behaviors, and demographic traits of a
particular customer
35
One-to-One Marketing and
Personalization in EC (cont.)
36
One-to-One Marketing and
Personalization in EC (cont.)
Major strategies used to compile user
profiles
Solicit information directly from the user
Observe what people are doing online
Build from previous purchase patterns
Perform marketing research
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One-to-One Marketing and
Personalization in EC (cont.)
Cookie: A data file that is placed on a
user’s hard drive by a Web server,
frequently without disclosure or the user’s
consent, that collects information about the
user’s activities at a site
38
One-to-One Marketing and
Personalization in EC (cont.)
Collaborative filtering: A personalization
method that uses customer data to predict,
based on formulas derived from behavioral
sciences, what other products or services a
customer may enjoy; predictions can be
extended to other customers with similar
profiles
39
One-to-One Marketing and
Personalization in EC (cont.)
Variations of collaborative filtering:
Rule-based filtering
Content-based filtering
Activity-based filtering
Legal and ethical issues in collaborative filtering
Invasion-of-privacy issues
Permission-based personalization tools to request
customer permission
40
One-to-One Marketing and
Personalization in EC (cont.)
Customer loyalty
Customer loyalty: Degree to which a customer will
stay with a specific vendor or brand
Increased customer loyalty produces cost savings
through:
lower marketing costs
lower transaction costs
lower customer turnover expenses
lower failure costs
E-loyalty: Customer loyalty to an e-tailer
41
One-to-One Marketing and
Personalization in EC (cont.)
Trust in EC
Trust: The psychological status of involved
parties who are willing to pursue further
interaction to achieve a planned goal
Trust is influenced by many variables
42
One-to-One Marketing and
Personalization in EC (cont.)
43
One-to-One Marketing and
Personalization in EC (cont.)
How to increase EC trust
between buyers and sellers trust is
determined by:
degree of initial success that each party
experienced with EC and with each other
well-defined roles and procedures for all
parties involved
realistic expectations as to outcomes from EC
44
One-to-One Marketing and
Personalization in EC (cont.)
Issues in personalization
brand recognition
security mechanisms help solidify trust
disclose and update latest business status and
practices to potential customers and to build
transaction integrity into the system
guarantee information and protection privacy
through various communication channels
45