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FIRST 5
 Review
the types of evidence for evolution
with a partner and determine:


1.) Which is the most convincing (and why)
2.) Which is the LEAST convincing (and why)
 Theory




of evolution:
Change in allele frequency over time
Change in a species over time
Process by which modern organisms have
descended from ancient organisms
Charles Darwin: a 19th century English
naturalist who first published this theory.
EVIDENCE OF EVOLUTION
DIRECT EVIDENCE
INDIRECT EVIDENCE
MIMICRY
FOSSILS
CAMOUFLAGE
COMPARATIVE ANATOMY
(homologous and vestigial
structures)
DEVELOPMENT OF
RESISTANCE (in viruses,
bacteria, insects)
COMPARATIVE
EMBRYOLOGY
ARTIFICIAL SELECTION (food,
dogs)
BIOCHEMISTRY (DNA,
PROTEINS)
MIMICRY
A species
LOOKS
Like another
Species-as a
warning to
predators-even
if they are
harmless.
CAMOUFLAGE
A
species has structures or coloring that
 Allows it to blend in with its environment-to
hide from predators.
DIRECT EVIDENCE
 Physiological


adaptations
Adaptations in the biochemicals or the
metabolism of a species that allow it to
survive.
Examples:
• Antibiotic resistance in bacteria
• Pesticide resistance
• Resistance of viruses to medication
Antibiotic resistance
 Bacteria
will become
 resistant to antibiotics
 (which will normally kill
 them)
Pesticide resistance
 Insects
can also
 develop resistance
 to pesticides-due to
 random mutations
 that naturally occur
 in the population
INDIRECT EVIDENCE
 FOSSILS

Anything left by organisms that lived a long
time ago.
•
•
•
•
•
Bones
Skeletons
Footprints
Imprints
feces
ARCHYOPTERYX
Tiktaalik
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zGqae7
vuUWo
INDIRECT EVIDENCE
 COMPARATIVE



ANATOMY
Comparing the
internal and external parts of the organisms
of different species
HOMOLOGOUS STRUCTURES
 Structures
that came from a common
ancestor and have similar functions.
HOMOLOGOUS STRUCTURES
ANALOGOUS STRUCTURES
 Structures
that DID NOT come from a
common ancestor, but have common
functions.
CONVERGENT STRUCTURES
VESTIGIAL STRUCTURES
 Structures
organism.
that have no use for the
Geographic distribution
INDIRECET EVIDENCE
 COMPARATIVE


EMBRYOLOGY
Comparing embryos from different species.
Embryo-an early stage of development of an
organism.
INDIRECT EVIDENCE
 BIOCHEMISTRY


The chemicals required for life
DNA, RNA, ATP, etc…
When DNA sequences are compared between
different organisms, the more they are the
same, the more related the organisms are,
the more they are different, the less related
they are.
Comparing amino acid sequences
Direct evidence
 Artificial

selection
Humans have artificially selected traits that
they want in food (corn, vegetables) and pets!
ARTIFICIAL SELECTION
QUIZ! (Open notes)
 1.)
What is evolution?
 2.) What are the 4 steps of natural
selection?
 3.) What is the LEAST convincing piece of
evidence for evolution and why?
 4.) What is the MOST convincing piece of
evidence for evolution and why?
 5.) Choose any type of evidence for
evolution and give an example that is NOT
from the book or from Today’s lecture
notes.
Turn in your REVIEW outline on the front
tableYou have 1 minute after the bell or it is
Late!
MAKE SURE THAT YOUR NAME IS ON
IT!!!!





Homework for today:
Make an outline of all of the topics that we have discussed THIS QUARTER (since
January). This will be your review sheet for the Mid-term exam this Friday.
The more detailed, the better.
Include important vocabulary terms and concepts.
This will be graded: 100, 90, 80, 70, 50, or a 0.
Blue footed booby dance
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z922by
9_6Fw