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Drill #34
Quote: Persistent work triumphs.
Sound and Light
© 2000 Microsoft Clip Gallery
Waves carry energy from one place to
 ...a
longitudinal wave in air caused by a
vibrating object.
 Produced by tiny fluctuations of air
 Carried through air at 345 m/s (770
m.p.h) as compressions and
compressed gas
rarefied gas
Why is Sound Longitudinal?
 Waves
in air can’t be transverse,
because the molecules are not bound to
each other.
 Air
molecules can only bump into one
Origin of Sound
 infrasonic
 frequencies
< 20 Hz
 ultrasonic
 frequencies
> 20,000 Hz
human hearing range
 frequencies
20,000 Hz
between 20 Hz and
Origin of Sound (Cont.)
 The
frequency of an audible sound
determines how high or low we
perceive the sound to be. (pitch)
 greater
frequency = greater the pitch.
Nature of Sound in Air and Solids
 Speed
of sound in air is related to the
frantic motions of molecules as they
jostle and collide.
 Solids
have faster sound speeds due to
close molecule proximity & molecular
don’t have to rely on atoms to traverse gap
Example Sound Speeds
air (25C)
sound speed (m/s)
Sample Problem
What is the approximate distance of a
thunderstorm when you note a 3 second
delay between the flash of the lightning
and the sound of the thunder?
Answer: 3 seconds  340
= 1020 meters
 …a
frequency shift that is the
result of relative motion between
the source of the waves and the
 Doppler
with Sound
Some applications of the Doppler effect
Doppler flow meter measures speed of blood flow in blood vessels. A transmitter
generates high frequency (~5MHz) “sounds” that move through the body and
bounce off red blood cells. The motion of the blood cells cause a Doppler shift in
the sound waves (in the hundreds of Hz range), that can be measured by a
Some applications of Doppler effect
ultrasound image of a fetus
sonar image of a shipwreck in Lake Ontario
Ultrasound, sonar, echolocation and seismic exploration are all ways in which
machines or animals can image the surroundings using sound waves. A sound
wave is emitted, bounces off reflective surfaces in the environment, and the
reflected signals are observed. The time delay between transmission and
reception of the wave is related to the distance to the reflecting surface,
transmission and reflection properties of the media, etc., and this information can
be used to reconstruct an image of the surroundings.
Some applications of Doppler effect
Doppler radar used in weather forecasting to detect local velocities in a storm
system: same principle as with the Doppler effect in sound waves, only here the
frequency shift is in radio waves bouncing off moving water droplets in a storm.
Some applications of Doppler effect
True Velocity
Radial Velocity
LIGHT & USES: Diffraction
Diffraction – Bending of waves around
the edge of a barrier. New waves are
formed from the original. breaks images
into bands of light & dark and colors.
 Refraction – Bending of waves due to a
change in speed through an object.
EVALUATION: State Standards
Waves carry energy from one place to
 Identify transverse and longitudinal waves in
mechanical media such as spring, ropes, and
the earth (seismic waves)
 Solve problems involving wavelength,
frequency, & speed.
EVALUATION: State Standards
Radio waves, light, and x-rays are different
wavelength bands in the spectrum of
electromagnetic waves whose speed in
vacuum is approximately 3x10 m/sec
 Sound is a longitudinal wave whose speed
depends on the properties of the medium in
which it propagates.
EVALUATION: State Standards
Identify the characteristic properties of
 Interference
 Diffraction
 Refraction
 Doppler Effect
 Polarization.
© 2000 Microsoft Clip Gallery
Waves (Def.) – A wave is a disturbance that
transfers energy.
Medium – Substance or region through
which a wave is transmitted.
Speed of Waves – Depends on the properties
of the medium.
LIGHT: What Is It?
© 2000 Microsoft Clip Gallery
Light Energy
 Atoms
As atoms absorb energy, electrons jump
out to a higher energy level.
Electrons release light when falling
down to the lower energy level.
 Photons - bundles/packets of energy
released when the electrons fall.
 Light: Stream of Photons
© 2000 Microsoft Clip Gallery
Electromagnetic Waves
 Speed
in Vacuum
 300,000 km/sec
 186,000 mi/sec
 Speed in Other Materials
 Slower in Air, Water, Glass
© 2000 Microsoft Clip Gallery
Transverse Waves
© 2000 Microsoft Clip Gallery
 Energy
is perpendicular to direction of
 Moving photon creates electric &
magnetic field
 Light has BOTH Electric & Magnetic
fields at right angles!
Electromagnetic Spectrum
Spectrum – Light we can see
 Roy G. Biv – Acronym for Red,
Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, &
 Largest to Smallest Wavelength.
 Visible
Electromagnetic Spectrum
 Invisible
 Radio Waves
Def. – Longest wavelength &
lowest frequency.
Uses – Radio & T.V.
© 2000 Microsoft Clip Gallery
Modulating Radio Waves
© 2000 Microsoft Clip Gallery
Modulation - variation of amplitude or
frequency when waves are broadcast
 AM – amplitude modulation
 Carries audio for T.V. Broadcasts
Longer wavelength so can bend
around hills
 FM – frequency modulation
Carries video for T.V. Broadcasts
Short Wavelength Microwave
 Invisible
Spectrum (Cont.)
 Infrared Rays
Def – Light rays with longer
wavelength than red light.
Uses: Cooking, Medicine, T.V.
remote controls
Electromagnetic Spectrum
 Invisible
spectrum (cont.).
 Ultraviolet rays.
Def. – EM waves with frequencies
slightly higher than visible light
Uses: food processing & hospitals
to kill germs’ cells
Helps your body use vitamin D.
Electromagnetic Spectrum
 Invisible
Spectrum (Cont.)
 X-Rays
 Def. - EM waves that are shorter
than UV rays.
 Uses: Medicine – Bones absorb xrays; soft tissue does not.
 Lead absorbs X-rays.
Electromagnetic Spectrum
 Invisible
spectrum (cont.)
 Gamma rays
Def. Highest frequency EM
waves; Shortest wavelength.
They come from outer space.
Uses: cancer treatment.
LIGHT: Particles or Waves?
 Wave
Model of Light
 Explains most properties of light
 Particle Theory of Light
 Photoelectric Effect – Photons of
light produce free electrons
© 2000 Microsoft Clip Gallery
LIGHT: Refraction of Light
Refraction – Bending of light due to a
change in speed.
 Index of Refraction – Amount by which a
material refracts light.
 Prisms – Glass that bends light. Different
frequencies are bent different amounts &
light is broken out into different colors.
Color of Light
© 2000 Microsoft Clip Gallery
Transparent Objects:
 Light transmitted because of no scattering
 Color transmitted is color you see. All
other colors are absorbed.
 Translucent:
 Light is scattered and transmitted some.
 Opaque:
 Light is either reflected or absorbed.
 Color of opaque objects is color it reflects.
Color of Light (Cont.)
Color of Objects
 White light is the presence of ALL
the colors of the visible spectrum.
 Black objects absorb ALL the colors
and no light is reflected back.
© 2000 Microsoft Clip Gallery
LIGHT & ITS USES - Reflection
 Reflection
– Bouncing back of light
 Regular reflection – mirrors smooth
surfaces scatter light very little.
Images are clear & exact.
 Diffuse reflection – reflected light is
scattered due to an irregular surface.
Reflection Vocabulary
– Image is larger than
actual object.
 Reduced –Image is smaller than
 Erect –Image is right side up.
 Inverted – Image is upside down
 Enlarged
© 2000 Microsoft Clip Gallery
© 2000 Microsoft Clip Gallery
Light & Its Uses: Mirrors
 Reflection
 Optical Axis – Base line through the
center of a mirror or lens
 Focal Point – Point where reflected or
refracted rays meet & image is formed
 Focal Length – Distance between
center of mirror/lens and focal point
© 2000 Microsoft Clip Gallery
Reflection & Mirrors (Cont.)
 Convex Mirror
 Curves outward, thicker in center than
 Converges light rays (brings together)
 Use: Rear view mirrors, store security…
Concave Lenses –
 Lens that is thicker at the edges and thinner in
the center.
 Diverges light rays
 All images are erect and reduced
CAUTION! Objects are closer than they appear!
© 2000 Microsoft Clip Gallery
LIGHT & USES: Optical Instruments
 Acronym:
Light Amplification by
Stimulated Emission of Radiation
 Coherent Light – Waves are in phase
so it is VERY powerful & VERY
LIGHT & USES: Optical Instruments
 Holography – Use of Lasers to create
3-D images
 Fiber Optics – Light energy
transferred through long, flexible
fibers of glass/plastic
 Uses – Communications, medicine,
t.v. transmission, data processing.