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NAPOLEON BONAPARTE NAPOLEON’S RISE TO POWER The turmoil of the French Revolution gave Napoleon a prime opportunity to rise to power quickly. MILITARY SUCCESS • 1793 – Forced British troops out of the port of Toulon • 1795 – Defeated royalist in Paris • Put in charge of defending the French interior at age 26 • Put in charge of French troops invading Italy • Defeated Egypt’s Ottoman defenders MILITARY DEFEAT • Napoleon lost the Battle of the Nile against Great Britain • Napoleon left his troops in Egypt and returned to France NAPOLEON GAINS POWER • Directory was weak and ineffective • Napoleon’s supporters forced the members of the Directory to hand the government over to him • Coup d'état – a forced transfer of power • Created a group of three consuls, called the Consulate, to replace the Directory • Members of the Directory voted Napoleon in charge as first Consul WHY IS FRANCE HAPPY WITH A DICTATOR? • French were exhausted by chaos and constant warfare • Napoleon promised… • Order and stability • To uphold revolutionary reforms • Peace, prosperity, and glory NAPOLEON AS EMPEROR FROM FIRST CONSUL TO EMPEROR • Napoleon submitted a plebiscite; Do you want France to become an empire? • Plebiscite: a question put before all voters • Pope Pius VII came to Paris to crown him emperor • Napoleon took the crown and crowned himself EMPIRE IN AMERICAS • France’s American colonies included Louisiana, Florida, and Saint Domingue (modern day Haiti) • Civil War erupted in St. Domingue – Napoleon sent expedition to take back the colony • When Napoleon failed, he sold his Louisiana territory to the United States NAPOLEONIC WARS • Wars between France and other European countries during the French Revolution, led by Napoleon. • France expanded rapidly CONTINENTAL SYSTEM • A blockade preventing all French or allied ships from trading with Great Britain • Napoleon hoped disrupting their trade would weaken Great Britain, therefore weakening the rebellion against Napoleon • British responded by requiring all neutral ships to stop in British ports to gain permission to trade with the French THE PENINSULAR WAR • Portugal refused to comply with the Continental System • Napoleon sent in troops to take control • Napoleon conquered Spain and put his brother, Joseph on the Spanish throne • Great Britain sent in troops to support the Spanish • Napoleon sent in more troops, becoming triumphant • Guerrilla War – Spanish peasants would ambush French troops and camps NAPOLEON’S REFORMS • Church – State Relations: Concordat – an agreement with the pope that acknowledged that most French citizens were Roman Catholic • Economic: Established the Bank of France and a tax collection system • Legal: Napoleonic Code – uniform laws across the nation that eliminated injustices • Education: Established a network of high schools, universities, and technical schools NAPOLEON’S LEGACY • Nationalism – a sense of identity and unity as people; pride and loyalty toward your country THE FALL OF NAPOLEON NAPOLEON VS. RUSSIA • Napoleon noticed troop movement in Russia – Napoleon and 600,000 men invaded Russia • Napoleon faced many problems along the way • Napoleon wanted a quick easy victory, but no one was there for him to fight • Russians were practicing scorched earth policy – setting fire to fields and villages in order to leave nothing behind for the enemy to use • RUSSIA CONT. • Napoleon’s troops finally met with Russia’s • France won, casualties very high • French moved on to Moscow • Found it deserted and in flames • Returned to France through same scorched fields • Russian peasants attacked isolated French soldiers • Winter set in • 94,000/600,000 French troops returned NAPOLEON’S DEFEAT • After Napoleon’s defeat in Russia; Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Great Britain allied themselves against France • October 1813 – Allies defeated Napoleon in Leipzig • March 1814 – Allies entered Paris in triumph • Exiled to Elba – small Mediterranean island off the coast of Italy THE HUNDRED DAYS • After 1 year, Napoleon hired a ship to take him and his supporters back to France • Troops were sent to arrest Napoleon, instead pledged their loyalties to him • March 20, Napoleon arrived in Paris to cheering crowds • Start of the Hundred Days – a period of renewed glory for Napoleon BATTLE OF WATERLOO • Napoleon’s troops vs. British troops led by the Duke of Wellington • Belgium, Dutch, and German troops fought with Wellington’s troops • On June 18, 1815, the armies met near Waterloo • Prussia came to Great Britain's aid • Napoleon was defeated NAPOLEON’S FINAL DAYS • Napoleon tried to escape to America • Napoleon was exiled to St. Helena – a volcanic island in the South Atlantic, roughly 1,200 miles from the nearest mainland • Died 6 years after exile – Age 51 CONGRESS OF VIENNA • Major Negotiators: Lord Castlereagh of Great Britain, Czar Alexander I of Russia, King Frederick William III of Prussia, Prince Klemens von Metternich of Austria, and Charles Maurice de Tallyrand on behalf of King Louis XVIII. • Goals • Restore balance of power • Make Europe peaceful • Restore monarchies • Compensate allies for their loses • Prevent France from rising to such power again CONGRESS OF VIENNA CONT. • Changed boarders to strengthen countries surrounding France • France lost all conquered territory • French boundaries were pulled back to its boundaries in 1792 • France had to pay an indemnity – compensation for damages • Restored monarchies that Napoleon eliminated • Spain • Sicily • Portugal • Sardinia THE REVOLUTION’S LEGACY • Was the French Revolution a failure?