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Earth Materials
Lynn Garner
What Are Earth Materials?
• An earth material is any natural material
that is not now living on the earth’s
surface.
Vocabulary
• Geology: the study of the Earth
• Geologist: A Scientist who studies Earth
materials, such as the rocks and minerals
on the Earth
Vocabulary
• Minerals: one ingredient in the earth’s crust that
can’t be broken down - minerals make up rocks
• Rocks: earth materials made up of different
ingredients called minerals – rocks are made up
of more than one mineral/ingredient
• Property: something you can observe, such as
size, color, shape, or texture
• Crystal: the solid form of a material that can be
identified by its shape or pattern
What is the difference in rocks
and minerals?
Rocks
• Made up of different
ingredients
• Rocks can be broken
down into different
minerals.
Minerals
• Made up of only one
ingredient
• Minerals can’t be
broken down any
more.
Rock Properties
•
•
•
•
•
•
Texture
Color
Shape or edges
Size
Mass
Smell
Rocks Science Content
• Rocks can be separated into their components
• Rocks exhibit a variety of properties, including
shape, size, color, and texture.
• Water, setting, and evaporation can separate
rocks into their components.
• Crystals form from evaporation of a saltwater
mixture.
• Rocks are composed of earth materials called
minerals that cannot be physically broken apart
any further
• Rocks are made of ingredients called minerals.
Measurement Vocabulary
• Diameter: the distance across a circular object
• Circumference: the distance around a circular
object
• Depth: how thick an object is
• Meter tape: measures linear dimensions
• Balance: measures mass (You weigh a mock
rock using a balance to determine its mass.)
Rock Types
• Basalt: a dark, fine-grained rock that began as molten lava
extruded from a volcano or rift and then cooled quickly on
the earth’s surface.
• Granite: an igneous rock that forms when magma (molten
rock) forms deep in the Earth’s crust.
• Limestone: one common sedimentary rock – has a wide
variety of colors, textures, & origins and consist mostly of
mineral calcite. They form where water is present.
• Marble: a metamorphic rock, is limestone that has been
altered by heat & pressure – usually white by tinted by
other minerals – often used as columns or countertops
• Mock rock: forms from common ingredients found in your
kitchen (flour, salt, water, food coloring, & alum) and
neighborhood (sand, gravel, & shells) - resemble concrete
• Sandstone: a sedimentary rock formed when rocks such
as granite are eroded by wind, water, & ice – used as a
building stone.
Mohs’ Numerical Mineral Scale
Talc is the hardest mineral softest-1
Talc
Gypsum
Calcite
Fluorite
Apatite
Orthoclase
Quartz
Topaz
Corundum
Diamond
Diamond is the hardest mineral - 10
Mock Rocks
Mock Rocks
Real Rocks
Real Rocks
Mineral Types
• Fluorite- is found in a variety of colors-white,
green, blue, & violet. It can be scratched with a
gym clip.
• Gypsum- is a mineral that forms when seawater
evaporates under arid conditions.
• Quartz– one of most common minerals and is
made up of silicon and oxygen
• Calcite- a common mineral & chemical
composition is calcium carbonate. It can be
scratched with a penny.
• Feldspar
• Hornblende
• Mica-
Mineral
1
Talc
2Gypsum
3
7
Calcite
4
Fluorite
5Apatite
Quartz
How many tools
could scratch
this mineral?
Fingernail
Penny
Paper Clip
Tool
Bibliography
•www.fossweb.com