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Transcript
History
Atoms
Ions &
Isotopes
Nuclear
LAB
Work
100 100 100
100 100
200 200
200
300
200
300
300 300
400 400 400 400
500 500 500 500
200
300
400
500
for 100
Who was the first person to
believe that matter was made
of tiny discrete particles
called ‘atomos’?
Answer for 100:
Democritus
Explanation (100)
Democritus
His ideas were not accepted at the time
but come back and were revived much
later in time.
for 200
Fill in the blank with the
appropriate sketch, and the name
of the scientist that proposed
this model of the atom.
Answer for 200
Fill in the blank with the appropriate sketch, and
the name of the scientist that proposed this
model of the atom.
Thomson
- +
+
+
+
Explanation (200)
In the late 1800’s Thomson is
given credit for “discovering”
the electron and putting forth
what is sometimes called the
“chocolate chip cookie” model
of the atom.
for 300
What was the name of the
experiment used to “discover”
the nucleus. Why were the
men Rutherford invited over
to see his experiment so
shocked?
Answer for 300:
What was the name of the experiment used to
“discover” the nucleus. Why were the men
Rutherford invited over to see his experiment so
shocked?
The gold foil experiment. The men
were shocked because the alpha
particle should have blasted right
through the foil, and it bounced back
instead due to the nucleus.
Explanation (300)
The gold foil was very thin and
the alpha particle should have
blasted right through Thomson’s
model, but Rutherford proposed
the existence of a very small
dense nucleus.
for 400
What knowledge of the atom
was determined using this
instrument? AND what is this
instruments name?
Answer for 400
What knowledge of the atom was determined
using this instrument?
The discovery of the electron
and its charge. Cathode Ray
Tube
Explanation (400)
The movement of the beam
by a magnet indicated it was
negatively charged particles.
for 500
Which idea was NOT a part of Dalton’s
Atomic theory?
1. All elements are made of tiny particles called
atoms
2. All atoms of a given element are identical
3. Atoms chemically combine with different
atoms to form compounds
4. Atoms can not be created nor destroyed in
chemical reactions
5. Neutral atoms contain equal numbers of
protons and electrons
Answer for 500
Number 5 is NOT part of Dalton’s atomic theory
Explanation (500)
Although the statement Neutral
atoms contain equal numbers of
protons and electrons is true for
most atoms (not ions which we now
know exist) it is not part of
Dalton’s theory
for 100
State the number of protons,
neutrons and electrons in the
most common isotope of 28Ni
atoms.
Answer for 100
State the number of protons, neutrons and
electrons in the most common isotope of 28Ni
atoms.
28 protons
28 electrons
31 neutrons
Explanation (100)
The atomic number 28 tells us
protons and electrons for
atoms. Mass # 59 - 28 tell us
the 31 neutrons.
for 200
What is the difference in
meaning between the numbers
in the symbols: 1H and 4He and
Cl-1 ?
Answer for 200
What is the difference in meaning between the
numbers in the symbols: 1H and 4He and Cl-1 ?
1H
is the atomic number = no.
of protons.
4He is the mass number = no.
of protons + no. of neutrons
Cl-1 is the charge. It tells you
this atom has 1 extra electron
Explanation (200)
Depending on where the number
is and if it’s a subscript or
superscript it tells you specific
things about the atom
for 300
What is the name of the
particle with 45 neutrons, 36
electrons, and 35 protons?
Answer for 300
What is the name of the particle with 45
neutrons, 36 electrons, and 35 protons?
Bromine ion Br-1
Explanation (300)
The 35 protons tells us the
name of the element. The fact
that there are a different
number of electrons than
protons tells us it is an ion.
for 400
Which subatomic particle(s)
causes the mass of an atom
and which subatomic
particle(s) cause the size of an
atom?
Answer for 400
Which subatomic particle(s) causes the mass of an
atom and which subatomic particle(s) cause the
size of an atom?
The protons and neutrons cause
the mass, the electrons cause
the size.
Explanation (400)
The electron weighs only
1/1840th of a proton, yet its
electron cloud is responsible
for the size of the atom
Even this representation of
the relative small size of the
nucleus compared to the rest
of the large electron cloud is
not dramatic enough.
for 500
How many protons, neutron,
210
+3
and electrons for Po
Answer for 500
210Po+3
Atomic number = 84p
mass number = 210-84 = 126n
charge = +3 = 81e
Explanation (500)
Must use the mass number
given and pay attention to any
charges that may be present.
for 100
If an atom gains an electron
what is the new particle
called:
anion,
cation,
or dogion?
Answer for 100
If an atom gains an electron what is the new
particle called:
anion,
cation,
or dogion?
It is called an anion.
Explanation (100)
Gaining an electron causes a negative
ion called an anion. Losing electrons
results in a positive ion called a cation.
And this is a dogion !
for 200
There are 4 naturally occuring
isotopes of tungsten; 182W,
184W, 185W, and 186W.
Which is likely to be the most
commonly occurring isotope?
Answer for 200
There are 4 naturally occuring isotopes of
tungsten; 182W, 184W, 185W, and 186W.
Which is likely to be the most commonly occurring
isotope?
It is likely to be 184W.
Explanation (200)
The % abundance found in
nature weights the calculation
of average mass.
for 300
State the number of protons,
2+
neutrons and electrons in Sr
Answer for 300
State the number of protons, neutrons and
electrons in Sr2+
38 protons
50 neutrons
36 electrons
Explanation (300)
The name Sr tells you 38 protons.
The mass number 88 - 38 = 50
neutrons.
The 2+ charge indicates 2
electrons were lost resulting in 36
electrons.
for 400
If there are only two isotopes of
silver; 107Ag and 109Ag, why isn’t
the average atomic mass equal to
108?
Answer for 400
If there are only two isotopes of silver; 107Ag
and 109Ag, why isn’t the average atomic mass
equal to 108?
Because the average mass is a
weighted average. 56% is 107Ag and
only 44% of the silver is 109Ag
resulting in an average atomic mass
that is closer to the lighter atom.
Explanation (400)
It’s a weighted average so the
average will be closer to the
atom that is in a higher
percentage.
for 500
What is the name of this
31
element? X
Answer for 500
What is the name of this element?
31X
It cannot be determined
because this could be an
isotope of any element such as
Si, P, S, etc.
Explanation (500)
You must be told the atomic
number (or number of protons)
to determine the identity of
the element.
for 100
What does alpha () decay
look like? What is happeneing
when something undergoes
this type of decay?
Answer for 100
4
Looks like a Helium atom:
2He
The large atom decays and spits
out a helium atom from it
nucleus forming a new element.
Explanation (100)
All elements #83 and beyond
are radioactive and spew out
the most protons and neutrons
that it can at a time via alpha
decay.
for 200
What is this emission
particle called; 0-1e
Answer for 200
What is this emission
particle called; 0-1e ?
Beta or electron
Explanation (200)
beta or negatively charged
electron particle. It is emitted
after a proton self-destructs into
a neutron and spits out an
electron.
for 300
What is gamma radiation? And
when does it occur?
Answer for 300
What is gamma radiation?
And when does it occur? Gamma
radiation is high energy radiation that
accompanies most other forms of
nuclear decay.
Explanation (300)
Gamma rays are not particles.
for 400
Write a reaction to represent
the beta () decay of 3114Si
Answer for 400
Write a reaction to represent the beta () decay
of 3114Si
31 Si
14
--->
0
-1e
+
31
15P
Explanation (400)
Compare the mass and atomic
numbers before and
after…they MUST be
conserved
for 500
What is the new element and
mass number when 244Pu
undergoes two alpha and a
gamma decay?
Answer for 500
What is the new element and mass number when
244Pu undergoes two alpha and a gamma decay?
244Pu  4 He + 4 He + 0 y + 236 Th
(Thourium)
2
2
0
90
Explanation (500)
Make sure the mass and atomic
numbers are conserved.
for 100
Explain the law of conservation
of mass
Answer for 100
Mass can not be created nor destroyed in a
chemical reaction, it only changes forms
Explanation (100)
The mass of the reactants will
equal the mass of the products
in a chemical reaction
for 200
Name three indicators that a
chemical reaction happened.
Answer for 200
1. color change
2. bubbles
3. solid forming
Explanation (200)
These changes (and more) are
clear indicators that some type of
chemical change has occurred
for 300
If someone performs an
experiment and gets a 70%
percent error, is this a good
result? EXPLAIN!
Answer for 300
BAD! We would like our percent
error to be close to 0%
Explanation (300)
If we have a high percent
error it means that something
seriously went wrong…perhaps
an instrument error we were
unaware of before starting
the experiment.
for 400
How would we separate a
mixture where our product was
dissolved in a liquid?
Answer for 400
We could boil or evaporate the liquid
and force the dissolved material to
recrystallize into a solid.
Explanation (400)
This is a simple separation technique
we learned in Chapter 3!
for 500
For the law of conservation of mass lab
(where we made that yellow material) we
performed a double replacement reaction.
The following is a similar reaction. Predict
what the products will be if you start with
the following reactants:
Calcium nitrate + potassium sulfite  ?
(Hint: calcium and potassium are (+) and
nitrate and sulfite are (-) charges
Answer for 500
Double replacement is simply switching partners
so simple switch the names making positive and
negative charges combine
Calcium nitrate + potassium sulfite 
Calcium sulfite + potassium nitrate
Explanation (500)
For these reactions we must
dissolve the materials so they
form ions and have an opportunity
to react together and switch
partners.
Place Your Bet.
Place Your Bet.