Download atom

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

History of molecular theory wikipedia, lookup

Unbinilium wikipedia, lookup

Ununennium wikipedia, lookup

Extended periodic table wikipedia, lookup

Hypervalent molecule wikipedia, lookup

Tennessine wikipedia, lookup

Periodic table wikipedia, lookup

Chemical element wikipedia, lookup

Dubnium wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Chapter Introduction
Lesson 1 Substances
and Mixtures
Lesson 2 The Structure
of Atoms
Chapter Wrap-Up
How does the
classification of matter
depend on atoms?
What do you think?
Before you begin, decide if you agree or
disagree with each of these statements.
As you view this presentation, see if you
change your mind about any of the
statements.
Do you agree or disagree?
1. Things that have no mass are not
matter.
2. The arrangement of particles is the
same throughout a mixture.
3. An atom that makes up gold is exactly
the same as an atom that makes up
aluminum.
Do you agree or disagree?
4. An atom is mostly empty space.
5. If an atom gains electrons, the atom
will have a positive charge.
6. Each electron is a cloud of charge
that surrounds the center of an atom.
Substances and Mixtures
• What is the relationship among atoms,
elements, and compounds?
• How are some mixtures different from
solutions?
• How do mixtures and compounds
differ?
Substances and Mixtures
• matter
• compound
• atom
• mixture
• substance
• heterogeneous
mixture
• element
• molecule
• homogeneous
mixture
What is matter?
• Matter is anything that has mass and
takes up space.
• Anything that does not have mass or
volume is not matter.
What is matter made of?
• An atom is a small particle that is the
building block of matter.
• It is the many kinds of atoms and the
ways they combine that form the
different types of matter.
atom
from Greek atomos, means “uncut”
Classifying Matter
Scientists place matter
into one of two
groups—substances
and mixtures.
What is a substance?
• A substance is matter with a
composition that is always the same.
• A certain substance always contains the
same kinds of atoms in the same
combination.
substances (cont.)
• An element is a substance made of
only one kind of atom.
• Elements are the simplest substances
that can be identified by their physical
& chemical properties
•
When elements are chemically
combined, they form compounds
having properties that are different
from those of uncombined elements
Element symbols have either one or two
letters. Temporary symbols have three
letters.
substances (cont.)
• ATOMS:
• Atoms are the basic building blocks of
ordinary matter.
• Atoms can join together to form
molecules, which in turn form most of
the objects around you.
Modeling an
Atom
• Pencil “lead” is made of
mostly graphite, a form
of carbon. Two ways to
model atoms used in
this presentation are
shown here for carbon.
What is a substance? (cont.)
How are atoms and elements
related?
Substances? (cont.)
• A molecule is two or more
atoms that are held
together by chemical
bonds and act as a unit.
Substances? (cont.)
Modeling Molecules
• Models of molecules often consist of
colored spheres that stand for different
kinds of atoms.
Substances? (cont.)
• A compound is a substance made of
two or more elements that are chemically
joined in a specific combination.
• Because each compound is made of
atoms in a specific combination, a
compound is a substance.
Substances? (cont.)
• Many compounds exist as molecules,
but some, such as table salt, do not.
• Sugar particles are molecules because
they always travel together as a unit. Salt
particles do not travel together as a unit.
Substances? (cont.)
How do elements and
compounds differ?
Substances? (cont.)
What is the difference between a
compound and a molecule?
• A molecule is formed when two or more
atoms join together chemically.
• A compound is a molecule that contains at
least two different elements.
• All compounds are molecules but not all
molecules are compounds.
Substances? (cont.)
• So, in summary:
• element - a basic substance that can't be
simplified (hydrogen, oxygen, gold, etc...)
• atom - the smallest amount of an element
• molecule - two or more atoms that are
chemically joined together (H2, O2, H2O, etc...)
• compound - a molecule that contains more
than one element (H2O, C6H12O6, etc...)
What is a mixture?
• A mixture is matter that can vary in
composition.
• A mixture is made of two or more
substances that are blended but are not
chemically bonded.
Types of Mixtures
• A heterogeneous mixture is a mixture
in which the substances are not evenly
mixed.
• A homogeneous mixture is a mixture in
which two or more substances are
evenly mixed, but not bonded together.
Mixtures (cont.)
• A solution is another name for a
homogeneous mixture and is made of
two parts—a solvent and one or more
solutes.
• The solvent is the substance that is
present in the largest amount, and the
solutes dissolve, or break apart, and mix
evenly in the solvent.
Mixtures (cont.)
How are some mixtures
different from solutions?
Compounds v. Mixtures
• Compounds and solutions are alike in
that they both look like pure substances.
• The atoms that make up a given
compound are bonded together, which
means the composition of a given
compound is always the same.
Compounds v. Mixtures (cont.)
• The substances that make up a mixture
are not bonded together.
• Adding more of one substance to a
mixture does not change the identity
of the mixture.
Compounds v. Mixtures (cont.)
How do mixtures and
compounds differ?
Compounds v. Mixtures (cont.)
• The substances that make up a mixture
are not chemically combined.
• The substances that make up a mixture
can easily be separated by physical
processes.
• The elements that make up a compound
can be separated only by chemical
processes.
Compounds v. Mixtures (cont.)
To separate a
heterogeneous mixture,
you use differences in
the physical properties
of the parts.
The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Stephen Frisch, photographer
Compounds v. Mixtures (cont.)
You can separate
some homogeneous
mixtures by boiling
or evaporation.
The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc./Stephen Frisch, photographer
Visualizing Classification of Matter
• Matter can be classified as either a
substance or a mixture.
• Matter is classified according to the
types of atoms and the arrangement of
atoms in matter.
• An element is a
substance made
of only one kind
of atom.
• The substances that
make up a mixture are
blended but not
chemically bonded.
• Homogeneous mixtures have the
same makeup of substances
throughout a given sample.
Which term describes two or more
atoms that are held together by
chemical bonds and act as a unit?
A. atom
B. compound
C. molecule
D. substance
Which term refers to two or more
substances that are blended but
are not chemically bonded?
A. compound
B. element
C. mixture
D. molecule
Which term describes the
substance in a solution that is
present in the largest amount?
A. solvent
B. solute
C. mixture
D. element
The Structure of Atoms
• Where are protons, neutrons, and
electrons located in an atom?
• How is the atomic number related to
the number of protons in an atom?
• What effect does changing the number
of particles in an atom have on the
atom’s identity?
The Structure of Atoms
• nucleus
• electron cloud
• proton
• atomic number
• neutron
• isotope
• electron
• ion
The Parts of an Atom
• Atoms are made of several types of tiny
particles.
• The number of each of these particles in
an atom is what makes atoms different
from each other.
The Parts of an Atom (cont.)
The Parts of an Atom (cont.)
An atom has a center region with a
positive charge.
charge
Science Use an electrical property of
some objects that determines whether
the object is positive, negative, or neutral
Common Use buying something with a
credit card
The Parts of an Atom (cont.)
• The nucleus is the region at the center
of an atom that contains most of the
mass of the atom.
• Two kinds of particles make up the
nucleus—protons and neutrons.
• A proton is a positively charged particle
in the nucleus of an atom.
• A neutron is an uncharged particle in
the nucleus of an atom.
The Parts of an Atom (cont.)
An electron is a negatively charged
particle that occupies the space in an atom
outside the nucleus.
Where are protons, neutrons, and
electrons located in an atom?
The Parts of an Atom (cont.)
• An electron cloud is the region
surrounding an atom’s nucleus where
one or more electrons are most likely to
be found.
• Electrons occupy certain areas around
the nucleus according to their energy.
The Parts of an Atom (cont.)
• Electrons close to
the nucleus are
strongly attracted
to it and have less
energy.
• Electrons farther
from the nucleus
are less attracted
to it and have
more energy.
The Size of Atoms
• Every solid, liquid, and gas is made of
millions and millions of atoms.
• If you could multiply the width of an atom
by 100 million, it would be the size of an
orange.
Differences in Atoms
The atomic number is the number of
protons in the nucleus of an atom of an
element.
Differences in Atoms (cont.)
• Every element in the periodic table has
a different atomic number.
• You can identify an element if you know
either its atomic number or the number
of protons its atoms have.
Differences in Atoms (cont.)
How is the atomic number
related to the number of protons
in an atom?
Differences in Atoms (cont.)
An isotope is one of two
or more atoms of an
element having the same
number of protons, but a
different number of
neutrons.
Differences in Atoms (cont.)
• Because electrons are negatively
charged, a neutral atom that has lost an
electron has a positive charge.
• A neutral atom that has gained an
electron has a negative charge.
Differences in Atoms (cont.)
An ion is an atom that has a charge
because it has gained or lost electrons.
Atoms and Matter
• When elements combine to form
compounds, the number of electrons
in the atoms can change.
• The ways in which the atoms combine
result in the many different kinds of
matter.
Atoms and Matter (cont.)
What effect does changing the
number of particles in an atom
have on the atom’s identity?
• All matter is made
of atoms. Atoms
are made of
protons, electrons,
and neutrons.
• An orange is about 100 million times
wider than an atom.
• Atoms of the
same element
can have
different numbers
of neutrons.
Which term refers to the region
surrounding an atom’s nucleus
where one or more electrons are
most likely to be found?
A. electron cloud
B. ion
C. isotope
D. proton
Which term describes one of two or
more atoms of an element having
the same number of protons, but a
different number of neutrons?
A. atomic number
B. ion
C. isotope
D. molecule
Because electrons are negatively
charged, a neutral atom that has
lost an electron has what kind of
charge?
A. positive
B. neutral
C. negative
D. atomic
Do you agree or disagree?
4. An atom is mostly empty space.
5. If an atom gains electrons, the atom
will have a positive charge.
6. Each electron is a cloud of charge that
surrounds the center of an atom.
Key Concept Summary
Interactive Concept Map
Chapter Review
Standardized Test Practice
There are a finite
number of different
types of atoms that
combine in a multitude
of ways. Matter is
classified according to
the combination and
arrangement of atoms
from which it is made.
Lesson 1: Substances and Mixtures
• An atom is a building block of matter. An element is
matter made of only one type of atom. A compound
is a substance that contains two or more elements.
• A heterogeneous mixture is not a solution because
the substances that make up a heterogeneous
mixture are not evenly mixed. The substances that
make up a solution, or a homogeneous mixture, are
evenly mixed.
• Mixtures differ from compounds in
their composition, whether their
parts join, and the properties of
their parts.
Lesson 2: The Structure of Atoms
• The center of an atom is the nucleus. The nucleus
contains protons and neutrons. Electrons occupy
the space in an atom outside the nucleus.
• The identity of an atom is determined by its atomic
number. The atomic number is the number of
protons in the atom.
• The identity of an atom stays the same if the
number of neutrons or electrons changes.
Which term refers to matter that
can vary in composition?
A. compound
B. element
C. mixture
D. solvent
Which type of mixture is one in
which two or more substances
are evenly mixed, but not bonded
together?
A. molecular
B. homogeneous
C. heterogeneous
D. atomic
Which phrase describes the
process that separates the
elements of a compound?
A. change atomic number
B. chemical change
C. gain or lose electrons
D. physical change
Which describes the region at the
center of an atom that contains
most of the mass of the atom?
A. proton
B. nucleus
C. neutron
D. electron
Which term refers to the number
of protons in the nucleus of an
atom of an element?
A. atomic number
B. ion
C. isotope
D. molecular number
What term refers to anything that
has mass and takes up space?
A. atom
B. element
C. matter
D. substance
Which type of mixture is one in
which the substances are not
evenly mixed?
A. heterogeneous
B. homogeneous
C. molecular
D. solution
Which is a substance made of two or
more elements that are chemically
joined in a specific combination?
A. molecule
B. mixture
C. element
D. compound
Which is a positively charged
particle in the nucleus of an atom?
A. electron
B. electron cloud
C. neutron
D. proton
Which is an atom that has a
charge because it has gained
or lost electrons?
A. electron
B. ion
C. isotope
D. molecule