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Transcript
Q. What is Chemistry?
A. The science of matter; the branch
of the natural sciences dealing with the
composition of substances and their
properties and reactions.
Go to
Section:
Interest Grabber
Section 2-1
What’s the Matter?
All of the materials around you are made up of matter. You are made up of
matter, as are the chair you sit on and the air you breathe.
1. Give an example of solid matter.
2. Give an example of liquid matter.
3. Give an example of gaseous matter.
4. Is all matter visible?
5. Does all matter take up space?
Go to
Section:
AHSGE Alert!!!
How does the motion of molecules differ in each of the
three states of matter?
Solids?
Liquids?
Gases?
Go to
Section:
2-1 The Nature of Matter
Elements – substances that cannot be broken down into simpler chemical
substances. (90 elements occur naturally.)
Atom –the basic building block of all matter; the smallest particle of an
element that has the characteristics of that element.
Subatomic Particles- parts of the atom
►Protons- positive charged particles found in the nucleus (center of the
atom)
► Neutrons- Neutral particles found in the nucleus of the atom
► Electrons- Negative charged particles found in the outer energy levels
of the atom.
1st – 2, 2nd – 8, 3rd – 18, 4th – 32
Go to
Section:
Go to
Section:
2-1 The Nature of Matter
Terms to Know
Isotopes – atoms of the same element with the same number of protons
but a different number of neutrons.
Compound – a substance that is composed of two or more elements
chemically combined.
Covalent bond – formed when atoms share electrons. Examples are
sugars, fats, proteins, and water.
Molecule – a group of atoms held together by a covalent bond.
Ionic bond – formed when atoms gain or lose electrons.
Ion – a charged particle
Go to
Section:
Figure 2-2 Isotopes of Carbon
Section 2-1
Nonradioactive carbon-12
Nonradioactive carbon-13
6 electrons
6 protons
6 neutrons
6 electrons
6 protons
7 neutrons
Go to
Section:
Radioactive carbon-14
6 electrons
6 protons
8 neutrons
Figure 2-3 Ionic Bonding
Section 2-1
Sodium atom (Na)
Chlorine atom (Cl)
Sodium ion (Na+)
Chloride ion (Cl-)
Transfer
of electron
Protons +11
Electrons -11
Charge
0
Go to
Section:
Protons +17
Electrons -17
Charge
0
Protons +11
Electrons -10
Charge
+1
Protons +17
Electrons -18
Charge
-1
An Element in the Periodic Table
Section 2-1
6
Element Symbol
Element Name
Go to
Section:
Atomic #
C
Carbon
12.011
Atomic Mass (Mass #)
Determining the Number of Subatomic Particles
Atomic number – the total number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
Mass number – the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of
an atom.
To determine the number of protons: look at the atomic number
To determine the number of electrons: look at the atomic number
To determine the number of neutrons: round the atomic mass and
subtract the atomic number
Families- columns
Periods- rows
Go to
Section:
An Element in the Periodic Table
Section 2-1
6
Element Symbol
Element Name
Go to
Section:
Atomic #
C
Carbon
12.011
Atomic Mass (Mass #)
An Element in the Periodic Table
Section 2-1
5
Element Symbol
Element Name
Go to
Section:
Atomic #
B
Boron
10.81
Atomic Mass (Mass #)
Examples for Determining Subatomic Particles
Fe (Iron) - 26 protons, 26 electrons, (59 – 26) 33 neutrons
B (Boron) – 5 protons, 5 electrons (11 – 5) 6 neutrons
P (Phosphorus)– 15 protons, 15 electrons, (31 – 15) 16 neutrons
Na (Sodium)-11 protons, 11 electrons, (23 – 11) 12 neutrons
Go to
Section:
2-2 Properties of Water
Water – the most important compound in living organisms; Water makes
up 70 to 95 percent of most organisms.
Polarity
Water is a polar molecule. A polar molecule has an unequal distribution of
charge. Water can dissolve many ionic compounds such as salt as well as
many polar molecules such as sugar.
Hydrogen Bonds – the force of attraction that occurs with a hydrogen
atom
Cohesion – the attraction between molecules of the same substance
Adhesion – the attraction between molecules of different substances
Go to
Section:
2-2 Mixtures and Solutions
Mixture – a combination of substances in which the individual components
retain their own properties.
Solution – a mixture in which one or more substances (solutes) are
distributed evenly in another substance (solvent).
Example: Salt Water
Suspension – a mixture in which one of the substances does not
completely dissolve and will settle to the bottom
Example: blood
Go to
Section:
Figure 2-9 NaCI Solution
Section 2-2
ClCl-
Na+
Na+
Water
Go to
Section:
Water
ACIDS, BASES AND pH
Acid – any substance that forms hydrogen (H+) ions in solution.
Base – any substance that forms hydroxide ions (OH-) in solution.
pH scale – a measure of how acidic or basic a solution is. Below 7 is
acidic; above 7 is basic; 7 is neutral.
The pH of most cells must be kept between 6.5 and 7.5. In order for the
body to maintain a consistent pH, our body contains buffers. Buffers are
weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids or bases to prevent
sharp, sudden changes in pH.
Go to
Section:
pH Scale
Section 2-2
Increasingly Basic
Oven cleaner
Increasingly Acidic
Neutral
Go to
Section:
Bleach
Ammonia solution
Soap
Sea water
Human blood
Pure water
Milk
Normal
rainfall
Acid rain
Tomato
juice
Lemon juice
Stomach acid
Interest Grabber
Section 2-3
Life’s Backbone
Most of the compounds that make up living things contain carbon. In fact,
carbon makes up the basic structure, or “backbone,” of these compounds.
Each atom of carbon has four electrons in its outer energy level, which
makes it possible for each carbon atom to form four bonds with other atoms.
As a result, carbon atoms can form long chains. A huge number of different
carbon compounds exist. Each compound has a different structure. For
example, carbon chains can be straight or branching. Also, other kinds of
atoms can be attached to the carbon chain.
Go to
Section:
Concept Map
Section 2-3
Carbon
Compounds
include
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Nucleic acids
Proteins
that consist of
that consist of
that consist of
that consist of
Sugars and
starches
Fats and oils
Nucleotides
Amino Acids
which contain
which contain
Carbon,
hydrogen,
oxygen
Go to
Section:
Carbon,
hydrogen,
oxygen
which contain
which contain
Carbon,hydrogen,
oxygen, nitrogen,
phosphorus
Carbon,
hydrogen,oxygen,
nitrogen,
2-3 CARBON COMPOUNDS
Monomers – small units
Polymers – larger units formed from monomers
Organic Compounds – contain the element carbon
I. Carbohydrates
1. sugars and starches
2. C, H, O
3. simplest is monosaccharide (single sugar)
4. Monsaccharides can join together and form polysaccharides.
Polysaccharides are the form in which living things store excess sugar.
plants - starch
animals - glycogen
Go to
Section:
ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
II. Lipids
1. Organic compounds that are waxy and oily.
2. Used to store energy, form biological membranes.
3. Fats, oils, and waxes.
4. Plants and animals use lipids for storing energy. They
provide more energy than carbohydrates.
Sterols are types of lipids. A common type of sterol is
cholesterol.
Go to
Section:
ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
III. Proteins
1. contain N, C, H and O
2. polymers of amino acids
3. more than 20 different amino acids
4. help to carry out chemical reactions
5. one type of protein is an enzyme (it is a catalyst that speeds up a
reaction). Enzymes lower the amount of energy needed to start a
reaction.
6. Important in regulating chemical pathways, synthesizing
materials needed by cells, releasing energy, and transferring
information.
Go to
Section:
Figure 2-17 A Protein
Section 2-3
Amino
acids
Go to
Section:
ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
IV. Nucleic Acids
1. contains C, O, H, N, and P
2. polymers of individual monomers known as
nucleotides
3. Two basic kinds RNA (ribonucleic acid) and DNA
(deoxyribonucleic)
Go to
Section:
Interest Grabber
Section 2-4
2-4 Matter and Energy
Have you ever sat around a campfire or watched flames flicker
in a fireplace? The burning of wood is a chemical reaction—a
process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of
chemicals. A chemical reaction always involves changes in
chemical bonds that join atoms in compounds. The elements
or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction are called
reactants. The elements or compounds produced by a
chemical reaction are called products. As wood burns,
molecules of cellulose are broken down and combine with
oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water vapor, and energy is
released.
►On your own sheet of paper write down the reactants and
products in this reaction.
Go to
Section:
2-4 CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND ENZYMES
Chemical Reactions – when two or more substances combine together
producing new substances with different properties.
Reactants  Products
Metabolism – all of the chemical reactions that occur within an organism.
Activation Energy – the energy that is needed to start a reaction
Catalyst – a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction by lowering the
amount of energy needed to start the reaction.
Enzymes – special biological catalyst (type of protein)
Go to
Section:
Effect of Enzymes
Section 2-4
Reaction pathway
without enzyme
Activation energy
without enzyme
Reactants
Reaction pathway
with enzyme
Activation
energy
with enzyme
Products
Go to
Section:
Videos
Click a hyperlink to choose a video.
Atomic Structure
Energy Levels and Ionic Bonding
Covalent Bonding
Enzymatic Reactions
Video 1
Atomic Structure
Click the image to play the video segment.
Video 2
Energy Levels and Ionic Bonding
Click the image to play the video segment.
Video 3
Covalent Bonding
Click the image to play the video segment.
Video 4
Enzymatic Reactions
Click the image to play the video segment.
Go Online
Career links on forensic scientists
Interactive test
Articles on organic chemistry
For links on properties of water, go to www.SciLinks.org and enter the
Web Code as follows: cbn-1022.
For links on enzymes, go to www.SciLinks.org and enter the Web Code
as follows: cbn-1024.
Interest Grabber Answers
1. Give an example of solid matter.
Sample answers: books, desks, chairs
2. Give an example of liquid matter.
Sample answers: water, milk
3. Give an example of gaseous matter.
Sample answers: air, helium in a balloon
4. Is all matter visible?
No
5. Does all matter take up space?
Yes
Interest Grabber Answers
1. Working with a partner, make a list of ten things that have water in them.
Possible answers: bodies of water, rain and snow, soft drinks and other
beverages, juicy foods such as fruits, and so on.
2. Exchange your list for the list of another pair of students. Did your lists contain
some of the same things? Did anything on the other list surprise you?
Students’ answers will likely be similar, but not exactly alike.
3. Did either list contain any living things?
Students’ lists may include plants, animals, or other living things.
Interest Grabber Answers
1. On a sheet of paper, make a list of at least ten things that contain carbon.
Students will likely know that charcoal and coal contain carbon. They may
also list carbohydrates (starches and sugars), oil, gasoline, wood, or carbon
dioxide.
2. Working with a partner, review your list. If you think some things on your list
contain only carbon, write “only carbon” next to them.
Students will say that charcoal and coal contain only carbon. While these
materials do contain small amounts of other elements, such as sulfur, they
are composed mostly of carbon.
3. If you know other elements that are in any items on your list, write those
elements next to them.
Students may know that many carbon compounds also contain oxygen and/or
hydrogen.
Interest Grabber Answers
1. What are the reactants when wood burns?
Reactants are oxygen and cellulose.
2. What are the products when wood burns?
Products are carbon dioxide and water.
3. What kinds of energy are given off when wood burns?
Light and heat are given off. Some students may also mention sound (the
crackling of a fire).
4. Wood doesn’t burn all by itself. What must you do to start a fire? What does this
mean in terms of energy?
To start a fire, you must light it with a match and kindling. You are giving the
wood some energy in the form of heat.
5. Once the fire gets started, it keeps burning. Why don’t you need to keep
restarting the fire?
Once the fire gets going, it gives off enough heat to start more of the wood
burning.
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