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Transcript
Today is November 6th
Introduction to Atomic Theory
OBJ 1: Compare the different models of an atom.
OBJ 2: Explain how atomic theory has changed as
scientists have discovered new information about the
atom.
Warm-up: Why is it important to repeat an experiment?
Homework: Read pages 87-93. Purpose for reading:
Take notes on “terms to learn.” Science in the News
#9 due 11/6 and #10 due 11/13.
*TURN in Periodic table activity!
*ALL SF Experiments are to be done by 11/26
To do:
Complete page 83 Section Review
Sugar Cube Lab
Today is November 10th
Introduction to Atomic Theory
OBJ 1: Compare the different models of an atom.
OBJ 2: Explain how atomic theory has changed as
scientists have discovered new information about the
atom.
Warm-up: none
Homework: Review pages 87-93.” Science in the
News #10 due 11/13.
*ALL SF Experiments are to be done by 11/26
To do:
Sugar Cube Lab:
1.) Review procedures– Be sure you aren’t
missing any info
2.) Begin lab
3.) Go on to day 3
Today is November 11th
Introduction to Atomic Theory
OBJ: Same.
Warm-up: none.
To do: See above slides
Homework: Science in the News #10 due 11/13.
Study terms.
*ALL SF Experiments are to be done by 11/26.
Today is November 12th
Introduction to Atomic Theory
OBJ 1: Compare the different models of an atom.
OBJ 2: Explain how atomic theory has changed as
scientists have discovered new information about the
atom.
To do: See next slide
Homework: Science in the News# 10 due 11/13.
Study terms.
*ALL SF Experiments are to be done by 11/26.
To do:
1.) 10 minutes to finish Sugar Cube Lab
2.) Jigsaw
Activities Today: “A timeline of the
Atom”
1.You will be put into groups.
2.I will assign you a person to
research in the book
3.Research that person.
4.Write a word, phrase or sentence
that the person would likely say
about the atom.
5.Describe the tools that person
used to make his discovery.
6.Make an atom model that the
person proposed.
7.We will come back together to
make a timeline & present.
To-Do List:
Word or phrase
Tool
Atom Model
Groups/ Assignment
Group 1: Dalton
Group#2: Rutherford
Group# 3: Thomson
Group# 4: Bohr
Group# 5: Democritus
Conclusion
How does mixing or stirring, heating and crushing
a solute affect how quickly solids dissolve in
liquids?
Today is November 13th
Introduction to Atomic Theory
OBJ 1: Compare the different models of an atom.
OBJ 2: Explain how atomic theory has changed as
scientists have discovered new information about the
atom.
To do: See next slides
Homework: Review all notes.
* TURN in Science in the News #10
* ALL SF Experiments are to be done by 11/26.
To do:
1.) Jigsaw
2.) Notes
Democritus:
*“uncuttable” particle = atom
(“indivisible”)
Atoms:
*Small
*Hard
*Made of single material in differ
shapes/ sizes
*Always moving
*Form different materials by
joining together
Dalton: Atomic Theory
Hmm…
1.) All substances: made of atoms
“atoms cannot be created or
destroyed”
2.) Atoms of the SAME element
are exactly alike
3.) Atoms join with other atoms to
form NEW substances
J.J. Thomson:
*Small particles ARE inside atom
*Atom CAN be divided
Negative Corpuscles = electrons
*Atoms have no overall charge,
thus positive charge MUST be
present
*Plum-pudding model
http://www.chem.uiuc.edu/clcwebsi
te/cathode.html#
Ernest Rutherford:
Atoms were NOT soft
“blobs”
*Particles deflectedbounced in various
directions
THUS:
*Center of atoms = positive
charge (nucleus)
*particles that headed
toward nucleus were
pushed in the opposite
direction
*New model
Niels Bohr:
*Electrons travel around nucleus in
definite paths
*Paths are at certain distances from
nucleus
*Electrons jump
Modern Quantum Theory
Atomic orbitals are the basic building blocks of the atomic
orbital model (alternatively known as the electron cloud or wave
mechanics model),
Modern Quantum Theory:
•Max Planck
•Louis de Broglie
•Erwin Schrodinger
•Wolfgang Pauli
•Max Born &Werner Heisenberg
•James Chadwick
•Murray Gell-Mann
•George Zweig
•Albert Einstein
•Marie Curie
•Lise Meitner
•Enrico Fermi
And ….
http://atomictimeline.net/index.php
Ruđer Josip Bošković
Conclusion
Take a QUIZ:
http://www.neok12.com/quiz/ATOM0005
Who do you think had the biggest impact on today’s
present-day atomic theory?
Today is November 14th
Introduction to Atomic Theory
OBJ 1- 2: See previous slides.
OBJ 3: Compare the charge, location, and relative mass
of protons, neutrons, and electrons.
OBJ 4: Calculate the number of particles in an atom
using the atomic number, mass number, and overall
charge.
Homework: {Review pages 84-93 (i.e. skim your
notes)} Answer Section Review questions on pages
86, 89 and 93. *TEST on 11/21
To do: See next slides
* ALL SF Experiments are to be done by 11/26.
An
Introduction
to Atomic
Models
Atomic Theory?
In the following lectures,
you will learn about the
Atomic - Molecular
Theory of Matter.You
will also learn about
scientists and how they
have gathered evidence
about atoms.
Please Take Notes in
your Notebook as we
proceed!
Atomic - Molecular
of Matter
Theory
The Atomic - Molecular Theory of
Matter states that all matter is
composed of small, fast moving
particles called atoms. These
atoms can join together to form
molecules.
This theory is really thousands of
individual ideas and models
that provide evidence for the
whole theory.
Matter
Since the atom is
too small to be seen
even with the most
powerful
microscopes,
scientists rely upon
models to help us to
understand the
atom.
Believe it or not this is a
microscope. Even with the
world’s best microscopes we
cannot see the structure or
behavior of the atom.
Scientific Models
Scientists create models
to help them to
visualize complex
properties, structures or
behaviors. Since the
atom is so small,
scientists must gather
Indirect Evidence to
develop their models.
This is a model of one very
complex molecule made of
many different kinds of atoms.
Each colored ball represents an
atom of a different element.
What should a Model look like?
Scientific models may
not always look like
the actual object. A
model is an attempt to
use familiar ideas to
describe unfamiliar
things in a visual way.
This is a painting of a young woman
by Pablo Picasso. Does it actually
look like a young woman?
Is this really an Atom?
Many of the models that you have
seen may look like the one below. It
shows the parts and structure of the
atom. Even though we do not know
what an atom looks like, scientific
models must be based on evidence.
The model above represents the
most modern version of the
atom, but it’s still a model
(Artist drawing)
Indirect Evidence
Indirect Evidence is evidence gathered without
being able to directly observe the object. The
Atomic - Molecular Theory of Matter is based
upon a vast amount of indirect evidence
gathered over a long period of time. Just like
pieces being added to a puzzle, each new bit of
information gives us a better understanding of
atoms.
How can Indirect Evidence
be Gathered?
Pretty much
everything we know
about atoms is
indirect evidence.
One can't really see
atoms. We do see
enough of their
effects that we can,
with confidence,
describe the nature
of atoms.
It's like putting together a puzzle
that's missing some pieces. If you
get enough pieces in the right
place you can tell what the picture
is even though it still has holes.
Can a Model be Changed?
A model can be changed as new
information is collected.
From the early Greek concept to the
modern atomic theory, scientists
have built upon and modified
existing models of the atom.
Where did it all begin?
The word “atom” comes
from the Greek word
“atomos” which means
indivisible.
The idea that all matter
is made up of atoms
was first proposed by
the Greek philosopher
Democritus in the 5th
century B.C.
More History
Niels Bohr is one of
many scientists that
have given us a better
understanding of
Atoms.
The concept of atoms as proposed
by Democritus remained
relatively unchanged for over
2,000 years. Beginning in the late
18th century new discoveries
were made that led to a better
understanding of atoms and
chemistry. Many scientists since
that time have contributed new
evidence for the
“Atomic Theory”
How small is an atom?
 Bryson?
 3 hundred-millionths of a centimeter
“Weighing” an atom
 Since atoms are sooo small, scientists
developed a new unit:
 Atomic mass unit (amu):
 1 Proton = 1 amu
 1 neutron = 1 amu
 1 electron = almost 0 (we don’t consider the mass of
an electron when finding the mass number). It takes
more than 1800 electrons to equal 1 amu.
The Nucleus
 Small, positively charged center of the atom.
 Contains most of the atom’s mass
Inside the Nucleus
 Protons: positively charged particles
 Neutrons: particles in atom with no charge
 What is the charge of the nucleus?
Outside the nucleus
 Electrons: negatively charged particles in
atoms.
 Likely to be found around the nucleus within
electron clouds
What makes up P, N & E?
Take a QUIZ:
http://www.neok12.com/quiz/ATOM0001
http://www.neok12.com/quiz/ATOM0002
http://www.neok12.com/quiz/ATOM0003
http://www.neok12.com/quiz/ATOM0008
Today is November 17th
The Atom
OBJ 1- 4: See previous slides.
Take out: Section Review questions on pages 86, 89
and 93.
Homework: *TEST on 11/21
To do: See next slides
* ALL SF Experiments are to be done by 11/26.
An Atom is neutral!
 Equal number of protons and electrons
 The charges of protons and electrons are
opposite, but equal in size.
 What if they aren’t equal?
Ions
 A charged particle
 If # protons > # electrons . . .
 If # protons < # electrons. . .
Elements & Atoms
 Each element is made of a different amount
of protons, neutrons, and electrons.
 For example:
 Hydrogen= 1 proton, 0 neutron, 1 electron
 Helium= 2 protons, 2 neutrons, 2 electrons
 Gold= 79 protons, 118 neutrons, 79 electrons
**THE NUMBER OF PROTONS
DETERMINES THE ELEMENT**
ATOMIC NUMBER: THE NUMBER OF PROTONS IN THE
NUCLEUS OF THE ATOM
ALL ATOMS OF THE SAME ELEMENT HAVE THE SAME
AMOUNT OF PROTONS.
So…the amount of P doesn’t have to
equal N. . .
 Isotopes: atoms that have the same number
of protons, but a different number of
neutrons.
 This means it has a different mass number.
 Mass number = Sum of protons + neutrons
 Boron= 5 Protons + 5 Neutrons = 10 amu
 Or
5 Protons + 6 Neutrons = 11 amu
Properties of Isotopes
 Each element has a limited number of
isotopes (meaning, you can’t assign
“random” numbers of neutrons)
 Can be unstable: meaning, the nucleus can
change it’s composition. If it is unstable it’s
RADIOACTIVE
 Will have the same physical & chemical
properties of the stable isotope
To find the # of neutrons
 Simple subtraction
 Mass Number – Atomic number (# of p)
 Carbon -12
 Mass number= 12
 Atomic Number= 6
 Neutrons= 6
Calculating the Mass of an
Element
 Atomic Mass: weighted average of the
masses of all naturally occurring isotopes of
an element
 MathBREAK on page 92: To calculate the
atomic mass of an element, multiply the
mass number of each isotope by its
percentage abundance in decimal form. Then
add these amounts together to find the
atomic mass.
Calculate the Atomic Mass
What is the atomic mass of:
• Titanium-46 (8%)
• Titanium-47 (7.3%)
• Titanium-48 (73.8%)
• Titanium-49 (5.5%)
• Titanium-50 (5.4%)
Today is November 18th
“Made to Order”
 No new objectives.
 Homework: Test on 11/21. Handout and Lab
(finish whatever you didn’t finish in class
today!)
 Warm-up: Copper- 63 occurs in nature 69% of
the time. Copper- 65 occurs in nature 31% of
the time. Calculate the Atomic Mass.
How do I calculate this?!
* ALL SF Experiments are to be done by 11/26.
Concept Map
 Higgs Boson Explained video:
 http://player.vimeo.com/video/41038445?portrait
=0&amp
Example
 Chlorine-35 makes up 76% abundance in
nature
 Chlorine-37 makes up 24% abundance in
nature
 (35 x 0.76) = 26.6
 (37 x 0.24)= 8.9
 +_______
 35.5 amu
Calculate
 Boron
 Boron-10 occurs 20%
 Boron- 11 occurs 80%
Forces in an atom
 Gravity: (acts between all objects) It affects
an atom, but very small affect.
 Electromagnetic Force: Same charges repel,
opposite charges attract. This is what holds
electrons around the nucleus.
 Strong Force: keeps the nucleus together
because protons would repel each other.
Stronger than E.M. Force.
 Weak Force: in radioactive atoms. . .a neutron
can change into a proton.
Draw a concept map
 Proton
 Atomic mass unit
 Neutron
 Atomic number
 Isotopes
 Mass number
 Atomic mass
Atom Builder Activity
 http://www.nclark.net/Atom_Builder.pdf
Today is November 19th
“Made to Order”
 No new objectives.
 Homework: Study- Test on 11/21
To Do:
 Questions about SF
 Check last night’s HW
 Notes from yesterday
* ALL SF Experiments are to be done by 11/26.
Today is November 20th
“Made to Order”
 No new objectives.
 Homework: TEST on 11/21.
To Do:
 Questions
 Lesson Wrap-up: Chapter Review
* ALL SF Experiments are to be done by 11/26.
Today is November 21st
TEST right NOW!
 Homework:
* ALL SF Experiments are to be done by 11/26.
For today and tomorrow we will…
REVIEW of SMALL PARTICLE
THEORY
Homework: none- if you do your work!
-BOTH labs are due by the end of class on 11/25!
To do: What does the small particle theory say… again?
• ALL SF Experiments are to be done by 11/26.
• FULL SF papers (DRAFT ONLY) are due 12/3
The Particle Theory of Matter:
1. Matter is made up of tiny particles (Atoms &
Molecules)
2. Particles of Matter are in constant motion.
3. Particles of Matter are held together by very strong
elastic forces
4. There are empty spaces between the particles of
matter that are very large compared to the particles
themselves.
5. Each substance has unique particles that are different
from the particles of other substances
6. Temperature affects the speed of the particles. The
higher the temperature, the faster the speed of the
particles.
The particle theory of matter explains the following scientific
phenomena:
• Pure substance are homogeneous (one phase - one unique kind
of particle)
• Physical Changes - Melting, Evaporation, Sublimation,
Dissolving.....
• Characteristic Physical Properties - Density, Viscosity,
Electrical & Thermal Conductivity
Next up: LABS
*Molecular Motion and Spacing
* Space between particles of liquid